After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma, up to 29% of patients have a pathological complete response (pCR). What to do afterward is still under debate. The aim of this prospective study was to define which local markers of immune response might act as predictors of pCR and of recurrence after pCR. The peritumoral healthy mucosa of the surgical specimen was sampled at esophagectomy and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and Real-Time PCR. One hundred and twenty-three patients received neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma and were included in the study. Significantly higher rate of natural killer (NK) cells (CD57+), intraepithelial CD8 + T lymphocytes and degranulating T- and NK-cells (CD107+) were observed in the healthy mucosa of patients with pCR. Moreover, pCR was characterized by a lower immune-check points gene expression level. T-cell activation markers mRNA levels were significantly lower in patients with pCR and recurrent disease, showing an excellent accuracy in the prediction of the postoperative recurrence. Costimulatory molecules mRNA relative levels tended to be lower in patients with pCR and recurrent disease, showing a good accuracy in the prediction of postoperative recurrence in patients with pCR. The immune profile identified in this study might further be tested in large prospective trials as marker of pCR after neoadjuvant therapy and as predictor of recurrence after pCR.