Immunity and inflammation in status epilepticus and its sequelae: Possibilities for therapeutic application

Annamaria Vezzani, Raymond Dingledine, Andrea O. Rossetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency often refractory to available treatment options. It is a very heterogeneous condition in terms of clinical presentation and causes, which besides genetic, vascular and other structural causes also include CNS or severe systemic infections, sudden withdrawal from benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants and rare autoimmune etiologies. Treatment of SE is essentially based on expert opinions and antiepileptic drug treatment per se seems to have no major impact on prognosis. There is, therefore, urgent need of novel therapies that rely upon a better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying this clinical condition. Accumulating evidence in animal models highlights that inflammation ensuing in the brain during SE may play a determinant role in ongoing seizures and their long-term detrimental consequences, independent of an infection or auto-immune cause; this evidence encourages reconsideration of the treatment flow in SE patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1081-1092
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Volume15
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2 2015

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Keywords

  • animal models
  • anti-inflammatory treatments
  • bloodbrain barrier
  • comorbidities
  • COX-2
  • cytokines
  • neurodegeneration
  • outcome
  • prognosis
  • refractory status epilepticus
  • seizures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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