Immunobiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis

Luca G. Guidotti, Francis V. Chisari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Among the many viruses that are known to infect the human liver, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unique because of their prodigious capacity to cause persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. HBV and HCV are noncytopathic viruses and, thus, immunologically mediated events play an important role in the pathogenesis and outcome of these infections. The adaptive immune response mediates virtually all of the liver disease associated with viral hepatitis. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells exacerbate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced immunopathology and that platelets enhance the accumulation of CTLs in the liver. Chronic hepatitis is characterized by an inefficient T cell response unable to completely clear HBV or HCV from the liver, which consequently sustains continuous cycles of low-level cell destruction. Over long periods of time, recurrent immune-mediated liver damage contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-61
Number of pages39
JournalAnnual Review of Pathology
Volume1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Fingerprint

viral hepatitis
Hepatitis
Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis B virus
pathogenesis
Hepacivirus
liver
Liver
Fibrosis
immunopathology
Viruses
chronic hepatitis
viruses
cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
liver neoplasms
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
liver diseases
Adaptive Immunity
hepatoma
Chronic Hepatitis

Keywords

  • Cytotoxic T cells
  • Extrahepatic diseases
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Liver cirrhosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Immunobiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. / Guidotti, Luca G.; Chisari, Francis V.

In: Annual Review of Pathology, Vol. 1, 2006, p. 23-61.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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