The complex pathway which links the agonist-cell membrane receptor binding to the response at the genome level involves, among other elements, protein kinase C (PKC). Agonists acting at the cell membrane can affect an autonomous nuclear polyphosphoinositide signaling system inducing an activation of nuclear phosphoinositidase activity and a subsequent translocation of PKC to the nuclear region. The fine localization of PKC has been investigated by means of electron microscopy quantitative immunogold labeling in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, mitogenically stimulated by IGF-I. The enzyme, which in untreated cells is present in the cytoplasm, except for the organelles, and in the nucleoplasm, after IGF-I treatment is reduced in the cytoplasm and almost doubled in the nucleus. The PKC isoform translocated to the nucleus is the α isozyme, which is found not only associated with the nuclear envelope but mainly with the interchromatin domains. By using in situ matrix preparations, PKC appears to be retained at the nuclear matrix level, both at the nuclear lamina and at the inner nuclear matrix, suggesting a direct involvement in the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins which are responsible for the regulation of DNA replication.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)