Immunogenicity and safety of the CoronaVac inactivated vaccine in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a phase 4 trial

Ana C. Medeiros-Ribeiro, Nadia E. Aikawa, Carla G.S. Saad, Emily F.N. Yuki, Tatiana Pedrosa, Solange R.G. Fusco, Priscila T. Rojo, Rosa M.R. Pereira, Samuel K. Shinjo, Danieli C.O. Andrade, Percival D. Sampaio-Barros, Carolina T. Ribeiro, Giordano B.H. Deveza, Victor A.O. Martins, Clovis A. Silva, Marta H. Lopes, Alberto J.S. Duarte, Leila Antonangelo, Ester C. Sabino, Esper G. KallasSandra G. Pasoto, Eloisa Bonfa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

CoronaVac, an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been approved for emergency use in several countries. However, its immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals has not been well established. We initiated a prospective phase 4 controlled trial (no. NCT04754698, CoronavRheum) in 910 adults with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) and 182 age- and sex-frequency-matched healthy adults (control group, CG), who received two doses of CoronaVac. The primary outcomes were reduction of ≥15% in both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion (SC) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) positivity 6 weeks (day 69 (D69)) after the second dose in the ARD group compared with that in the CG. Secondary outcomes were IgG SC and NAb positivity at D28, IgG titers and neutralizing activity at D28 and D69 and vaccine safety. Prespecified endpoints were met, with lower anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG SC (70.4 versus 95.5%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (56.3 versus 79.3%, P < 0.001) at D69 in the ARD group than in the CG. Moreover, IgG titers (12.1 versus 29.7, P < 0.001) and median neutralization activity (58.7 versus 64.5%, P = 0.013) were also lower at D69 in patients with ARD. At D28, patients with ARD presented with lower IgG frequency (18.7 versus 34.6%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (20.6 versus 36.3%, P < 0.001) than that of the CG. There were no moderate/severe adverse events. These data support the use of CoronaVac in patients with ARD, suggesting reduced but acceptable short-term immunogenicity. The trial is still ongoing to evaluate the long-term effectiveness/immunogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1744-1751
Number of pages8
JournalNature Medicine
Volume27
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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