Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury

R. Formisano, S. Grelli, C. Matteucci, V. Santilli, V. Vinicola, G. Scivoletto, V. Castellano, C. D'Agostini, A. Mastino, C. Favalli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

It has been previously reported that following severe brain damage, a deficit of cellular immunity could be detected in the early phase after the occurence of the lesion. We report here the results of a cross-sectional study on long term effects of severe brain damage on immunological and neuro-endocrine changes in patients who recovered from prolonged coma caused by head injury. Results obtained from post-comatose (PC) patients were compared with those obtained from two control groups made up of spinal-cord injury (SCI) patients and healthy subjects, respectively. The following parameters were studied: lymphomonocyte subsets; interleukin 2 (IL-2) production; natural killer (NK) activity and serum levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). With respect to healthy controls the PC1 subgroup, i.e. patients examined 3-6 months after injury showed a statistically significant decrease in IL-2 production, NK activity and CD25+ lymphocytes. Similar immunological disturbances were observed in SCI but not in the PC2 subgroup, i.e. patients examined later than 6 months after injury. The same sub-group of PC1 patients showed high serum levels of cortisol and PRL. These results could be related to the immunological status and may be interpreted as a transient but prolonged condition of chronic stress or 'chronic alarm reaction'.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-158
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
Volume5
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1998

Fingerprint

Coma
Craniocerebral Trauma
Spinal Cord Injuries
Interleukin-2
Hydrocortisone
Wounds and Injuries
Brain
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Luteinizing Hormone
Serum
Thyroxine
Cellular Immunity
Prolactin
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Healthy Volunteers
Cross-Sectional Studies
Lymphocytes
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Brain damage
  • Immunosuppression
  • Interleukin 2
  • Neuroendocrine disorders
  • NK activity
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury. / Formisano, R.; Grelli, S.; Matteucci, C.; Santilli, V.; Vinicola, V.; Scivoletto, G.; Castellano, V.; D'Agostini, C.; Mastino, A.; Favalli, C.

In: European Journal of Neurology, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1998, p. 151-158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Formisano, R, Grelli, S, Matteucci, C, Santilli, V, Vinicola, V, Scivoletto, G, Castellano, V, D'Agostini, C, Mastino, A & Favalli, C 1998, 'Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury', European Journal of Neurology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 151-158.
Formisano, R. ; Grelli, S. ; Matteucci, C. ; Santilli, V. ; Vinicola, V. ; Scivoletto, G. ; Castellano, V. ; D'Agostini, C. ; Mastino, A. ; Favalli, C. / Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury. In: European Journal of Neurology. 1998 ; Vol. 5, No. 2. pp. 151-158.
@article{42395219af414d608bb784ac16158b02,
title = "Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury",
abstract = "It has been previously reported that following severe brain damage, a deficit of cellular immunity could be detected in the early phase after the occurence of the lesion. We report here the results of a cross-sectional study on long term effects of severe brain damage on immunological and neuro-endocrine changes in patients who recovered from prolonged coma caused by head injury. Results obtained from post-comatose (PC) patients were compared with those obtained from two control groups made up of spinal-cord injury (SCI) patients and healthy subjects, respectively. The following parameters were studied: lymphomonocyte subsets; interleukin 2 (IL-2) production; natural killer (NK) activity and serum levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). With respect to healthy controls the PC1 subgroup, i.e. patients examined 3-6 months after injury showed a statistically significant decrease in IL-2 production, NK activity and CD25+ lymphocytes. Similar immunological disturbances were observed in SCI but not in the PC2 subgroup, i.e. patients examined later than 6 months after injury. The same sub-group of PC1 patients showed high serum levels of cortisol and PRL. These results could be related to the immunological status and may be interpreted as a transient but prolonged condition of chronic stress or 'chronic alarm reaction'.",
keywords = "Brain damage, Immunosuppression, Interleukin 2, Neuroendocrine disorders, NK activity, Stress",
author = "R. Formisano and S. Grelli and C. Matteucci and V. Santilli and V. Vinicola and G. Scivoletto and V. Castellano and C. D'Agostini and A. Mastino and C. Favalli",
year = "1998",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "151--158",
journal = "European Journal of Neurology",
issn = "1351-5101",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Immunological and endocrinological disturbances in patients after prolonged coma following head injury

AU - Formisano, R.

AU - Grelli, S.

AU - Matteucci, C.

AU - Santilli, V.

AU - Vinicola, V.

AU - Scivoletto, G.

AU - Castellano, V.

AU - D'Agostini, C.

AU - Mastino, A.

AU - Favalli, C.

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - It has been previously reported that following severe brain damage, a deficit of cellular immunity could be detected in the early phase after the occurence of the lesion. We report here the results of a cross-sectional study on long term effects of severe brain damage on immunological and neuro-endocrine changes in patients who recovered from prolonged coma caused by head injury. Results obtained from post-comatose (PC) patients were compared with those obtained from two control groups made up of spinal-cord injury (SCI) patients and healthy subjects, respectively. The following parameters were studied: lymphomonocyte subsets; interleukin 2 (IL-2) production; natural killer (NK) activity and serum levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). With respect to healthy controls the PC1 subgroup, i.e. patients examined 3-6 months after injury showed a statistically significant decrease in IL-2 production, NK activity and CD25+ lymphocytes. Similar immunological disturbances were observed in SCI but not in the PC2 subgroup, i.e. patients examined later than 6 months after injury. The same sub-group of PC1 patients showed high serum levels of cortisol and PRL. These results could be related to the immunological status and may be interpreted as a transient but prolonged condition of chronic stress or 'chronic alarm reaction'.

AB - It has been previously reported that following severe brain damage, a deficit of cellular immunity could be detected in the early phase after the occurence of the lesion. We report here the results of a cross-sectional study on long term effects of severe brain damage on immunological and neuro-endocrine changes in patients who recovered from prolonged coma caused by head injury. Results obtained from post-comatose (PC) patients were compared with those obtained from two control groups made up of spinal-cord injury (SCI) patients and healthy subjects, respectively. The following parameters were studied: lymphomonocyte subsets; interleukin 2 (IL-2) production; natural killer (NK) activity and serum levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). With respect to healthy controls the PC1 subgroup, i.e. patients examined 3-6 months after injury showed a statistically significant decrease in IL-2 production, NK activity and CD25+ lymphocytes. Similar immunological disturbances were observed in SCI but not in the PC2 subgroup, i.e. patients examined later than 6 months after injury. The same sub-group of PC1 patients showed high serum levels of cortisol and PRL. These results could be related to the immunological status and may be interpreted as a transient but prolonged condition of chronic stress or 'chronic alarm reaction'.

KW - Brain damage

KW - Immunosuppression

KW - Interleukin 2

KW - Neuroendocrine disorders

KW - NK activity

KW - Stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=6844260529&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=6844260529&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:6844260529

VL - 5

SP - 151

EP - 158

JO - European Journal of Neurology

JF - European Journal of Neurology

SN - 1351-5101

IS - 2

ER -