The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is as yet unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that the immune system may play a crucial pathogenic role in non-genetic INS. The most important of these are, first, the effectiveness of therapy based on immunosuppression and, second, a vast body of data derived both from experimental models and from patient studies that implicate T cells and more recently B cells as major players in INS pathogenesis. However, recent findings also suggest a direct role of podocytes as drivers of the disease process, and the interplay between the glomerulus and the immune system is still being elucidated. In this review we provide an overview of current knowledge on the role of different components of the immune system in determining disease. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of INS may help drive new, more tailored therapeutic approaches.
- B cells
- Circulating permeability factors
- Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
- Immunosuppressive therapy
- T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health