Immunomodulants for the treatment of HIV infection: The search goes on

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The natural history of HIV infection has been greatly modified by the introduction of powerful antiretroviral agents that act on multiple steps of HIV replication. Thus, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged the life of HIV-infected individuals, significantly impacting on the progression to AIDS. It was assumed that ART-induced suppression of HIV would have resulted in a degree of immune recovery sufficient enough to allow immune control over HIV replication independently of the use of drugs. Unfortunately, interruption of therapy, even after long periods of full suppression of viral replication, is almost inevitably associated with a prompt rebound of HIV viraemia. The outcome of this observation is that ART has to be considered as a lifelong therapy, with the associated resulting problems of the emergence of multi-drug resistant viral strains, toxic effects, costs and compliance. The use of immunomodulants in association with ART could achieve the goal of boosting the immune response to a threshold, permitting the immune response to indefinitely suppress HIV replication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-200
Number of pages4
JournalExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Cytokines
  • HIV
  • Immune modulation
  • Immunomodulants
  • Therapeutic vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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