Immunotherapy advances in uro-genital malignancies

Raffaele Ratta, Roberta Zappasodi, Daniele Raggi, Paolo Grassi, Elena Verzoni, Andrea Necchi, Massimo Di Nicola, Roberto Salvioni, Filippo de Braud, Giuseppe Procopio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has made significant progresses over the last 20 years. Multiple efforts have been attempted to restore immune-mediated tumor elimination, leading to the development of several targeted immunotherapies. Data from recent clinical trials suggest that these agents might improve the prognosis of patients with advanced genito-urinary (GU) malignancies. Nivolumab has been the first immune checkpoint-inhibitor approved for pre-treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have shown promising results in both phase I and II trials in urothelial carcinoma. Brentuximab vedotin has demonstrated early signals of clinical activity and immunomodulatory effects in highly pre-treated patients with testicular germ cell tumors.In this review, we have summarized the major clinical achievements of immunotherapy in GU cancers, focusing on immune checkpoint blockade as well as the new immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under clinical evaluation for these malignancies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 15 2016


  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • CTLA-4
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • PD-1
  • Prostate cancer
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Urothelial cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Hematology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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