Immunotherapy beyond progression in advanced renal cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

Sara Elena Rebuzzi, Giacomo Bregni, Massimiliano Grassi, Azzurra Damiani, Michele Buscaglia, Sebastiano Buti, Giuseppe Fornarini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Immunotherapy is associated with different response patterns compared with chemotherapy and targeted therapy, including delayed response and stabilization after progression (pseudoprogression). According to new immuno-based response criteria, immunotherapy can be continued after radiological progression when a clinical benefit is observed. We report a case of an advanced renal cell carcinoma patient treated with nivolumab, who developed clinical benefit and delayed radiological response after initial progression. We performed a review of the literature on immunotherapy beyond progression in advanced solid tumors. 12 clinical trials were identified and showed that selected patients have subsequent response and survival benefit receiving immunotherapy beyond progression. Future studies are needed to optimize timing and duration of immunotherapy and to define patient selection criteria for treatment beyond progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1123-1132
Number of pages10
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2018


  • immune-checkpoint inhibitors
  • immune-related unconfirmed progressive disease
  • immunotherapy
  • pseudoprogression
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • treatment beyond progression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology


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