Lung cancer represent the leading cause of cancer related-death worldwide. Although cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted agents improved survival, the median overall survival for patients with metastatic disease remains poor. Docetaxel is still the corner stone of the second-line treatment, although associated with an unfavourable safety profile. Recent advances in the understanding of cancer immune escape system lead to the development of novel immunotherapies agent that can restore patient's immune response to cancer cells. Unlike vaccines, immune checkpoints inhibitors have shown promising results in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Especially, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, monoclonal antibodies against PD-1, provides as single agent therapy in chemotherapy refractory patients objective response rates ranging from 15%-25%, the majority of which arose quickly and were ongoing 1 year after starting treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity profile differs from that of cytotoxic chemotherapy and is much better tolerated. PD-L1 expression is a promising biomarker for selection and stratification of patients, although its prognostic and predictive role remains to be defined. Several trials are currently ongoing to define the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, their combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted agents and the efficacy and safety of double blockage of PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4. We report a review based on a MEDLINE/PubMed, searched for randomized phase II or III trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors and NSCLC, considering the measured outcomes as progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the overall response rate (ORR).
|Translated title of the contribution||Immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Evolution of knowledge and clinical advances|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Recenti Progressi in Medicina|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 1 2016|
ASJC Scopus subject areas