We evaluated the replication and resistance patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains recovered from HIV-infected patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who were receiving chemotherapy (CT) concomitant with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We analyzed virological response to HAART in 35 patients with HIV and NHL who were treated with a cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone chemotherapy regimen and HAART and the virological response in 26 HIV-infected patients with CD20 cell-positive NHL who were treated with rituximab and cyclophosphamide-doxorubin-etoposide therapy. Genotype and virtual phenotype analyses were performed at baseline and when virological failure occurred. Only 9 patients met the criteria for virological failure. Genotype and virtual phenotype analyses demonstrated that, during CT administration, new mutations might occur, but there were no significant changes in the preexisting resistance patterns. Our data show that combination therapy consisting of CT and HAART is feasible and that the virological response can be maintained in the majority of patients receiving this treatment.
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