Impact of FODMAP Content Restrictions on the Quality of Diet for Patients with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet

Karla A. Bascuñán, Luca Elli, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Alice Scricciolo, Vincenza Lombardo, Luisa Doneda, Maurizio Vecchi, Cecilia Scarpa, Magdalena Araya, Leda Roncoroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Restrictive diets as gluten-free (GFD) or reduced in Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols (FODMAP) are used to improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in sensitive individuals. Aiming at comparing the nutritional quality and effects of a regular GFD regimen (R-GFD) and a low-FODMAP GFD (LF-GFD), in 46 celiac patients with persistent GI symptoms we conducted a randomized, double-blind intervention-controlled study. Patients received a personalized diet, either a strict GFD (n = 21) or a LF-GFD (n = 25) for 21 days. A validated food-frequency questionnaire before intervention and a 7-day weighed-food record after the intervention assessed the diets. Patients were 41.1 ± 10.1 years (mean ± SD), 94% women, with mean BMI 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2. On day 21, patients on R-GFD still showed poor nutritional adequacy compared to dietary recommendations, with decreased energy intake, even though an improvement in carbohydrates and folates was observed (all p < 0.025). In both groups, intake of iron, calcium, vitamin D, sodium and folates did not meet daily recommendations. As expected, consumption of legumes and grains was lower and that of fruits was higher in the LF-GFD group than in the R-GFD one (all p < 0.05). The nutritional quality of both diets was not different. When restrictive diets are useful to improve the persistent GI symptoms, careful nutritional surveillance and counseling is mandatory.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE2220
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 14 2019

Keywords

  • celiac disease
  • diet quality
  • FODMAP
  • gluten-free diet
  • nutritional adequacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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