Impact of maternal diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination on pertussis booster immune responses in toddlers: Follow-up of a randomized trial

Federico Martinón-Torres, Scott A. Halperin, Terry Nolan, Bruce Tapiéro, Kirsten P. Perrett, Ignacio Salamanca de la Cueva, José García-Sicilia, Zbynek Stranak, Otto G. Vanderkooi, Pavel Kosina, Sarka Rumlarova, Miia Virta, Jose M.Merino Arribas, Mariano Miranda-Valdivieso, Begoña Arias Novas, Jan Bozensky, María José Cilleruelo Ortega, Jose Tomas Ramos Amador, Manuel Baca, Esperanza Escribano PalominoGian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Jan Janota, Paola Giovanna Marchisio, Lusine Kostanyan, Nadia Meyer, Maria Angeles Ceregido, Brigitte Cheuvart, Sherine O. Kuriyakose, Narcisa Mesaros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Transplacentally transferred antibodies induced by maternal pertussis vaccination interfere with infant immune responses to pertussis primary vaccination. We evaluated whether this interference remains in toddlers after booster vaccination. Methods: In a prior phase IV, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study (NCT02377349), pregnant women in Australia, Canada and Europe received intramuscular tetanus-reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap group) or placebo (control group) at 270/7–366/7 weeks’ gestation, with crossover immunization postpartum. Their infants were primed (study NCT02422264) and boosted (at 11–18 months; current study NCT02853929) with diphtheria-tetanus-three-component acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity before and after booster vaccination, and reactogenicity and safety of the booster were evaluated descriptively. Results: 263 (Tdap group) and 277 (control group) toddlers received a DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib booster. Pre-booster vaccination, observed geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for the three pertussis antigens and diphtheria were 1.4–1.5-fold higher in controls than in the Tdap group. No differences were observed for the other DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib antigens. One month post-booster vaccination, booster response rates for pertussis antigens were ≥ 92.1% and seroprotection rates for the other DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib antigens were ≥ 99.2% in both groups (primary objective). Higher post-booster GMCs were observed in controls versus the Tdap group for anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (1.2-fold), anti-pertussis toxoid (1.5-fold) and anti-diphtheria (1.4-fold). GMCs for the other DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib antigens were similar between groups. Serious adverse events were reported for three toddlers (controls, not vaccination-related). One death occurred pre-booster (Tdap group, not vaccination-related). Conclusions: As a consequence of interference of maternal pertussis antibodies with infant immune responses to pertussis primary vaccination, pertussis antibody concentrations were still lower in toddlers from Tdap-vaccinated mothers before DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib booster vaccination. After the booster, antibody concentrations were lower for filamentous hemagglutinin and pertussis toxoid but not for pertactin. The clinical significance of this interference requires further evaluation. Clinical Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02853929.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1598-1608
Number of pages11
JournalVaccine
Volume39
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 12 2021

Keywords

  • Blunting
  • Booster
  • Maternal immunization
  • Pertussis
  • Tdap vaccine
  • Toddlers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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