Impact of Mitral Annular Calcium on Outcomes after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
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A high prevalence of mitral annular calcium (MAC) is expected in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI); however, data regarding the prevalence of MAC and impact on risk of cardiovascular events are lacking. To determine the prevalence of MAC and its association with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI, we retrospectively analyzed 424 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI from 2007 to 2015 and whose preoperative computed tomography images were available for assessment of MAC. Severe circumferential MAC (SC-MAC) was defined as calcification involving at least the whole posterior annulus alone or with the attachment of the anterior leaflet. Clinical outcomes were examined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria up to 2 years. SC-MAC was found in 17.7% of patients. Patients with SC-MAC were more likely to be female, with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and peripheral artery disease. There were no differences between the groups regarding age, functional class, prevalence of diabetes, kidney disease, and operative risk. Female gender and peripheral artery disease were independent predictors of SC-MAC. SC-MAC did not appear to be associated with periprocedural and 30-day outcomes. At 2 years' follow-up, patients with SC-MAC had significantly higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates. SC-MAC was an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. In conclusion, SC-MAC is a frequent finding in the TAVI population and appears to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality at 2 years' follow-up. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.