Impact of mutations outside the V3 region on coreceptor tropism phenotypically assessed in patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B

Laura Monno, Saracino Annalisa, Luigia Scudeller, Grazia Punzi, Gaetano Brindicci, Maurantonio Altamura, Antonella Lagioia, Nicoletta Ladisa, Gioacchino Angarano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


HIV coreceptor tropism (CTR) testing is a prerequisite for prescribing a coreceptor antagonist. CTR is increasingly deduced by analyzing the V3 loop sequence of gp120. We investigated the impact of mutations outside V3 on CTR as determined by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA). Paired ESTA and gp120 sequencing (population sequencing; from codon 32 of the conserved C1 to the variable V5 domains) were obtained from 60 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients (15 with AIDS) infected with subtype B HIV-1. For gp120 sequence analysis, nucleotide mixtures were considered when the second highest electropherogram peak was >25%; sequences were translated into all possible permutations and classified as X4, dual/mixed (DM), and R5 based on coincident ESTA results. ESTA identified R5 and DM viruses in 72 and 28% of patients, respectively; no pure X4 was labeled. Forty percent of AIDS patients had R5 strains. Thirty-two positions, mostly outside V3, were significantly (P <0.05) different between R5 and DM sequences. According to multivariate analysis, amino acid changes at 9 and 7 positions within the C1 to C4 and V1 to V5 regions, respectively, maintained a statistical significance, as did the net charge of V3 and C4. When analyzing only R5 sequences, 6 positions in the variable regions were found which, along with the V4 net charge, were significantly different for sequences from early- and end-stage disease patients. This study identifies specific amino acid changes outside V3 which contribute to CTR. Extending the analysis to include pure X4 and increasing the sample size would be desirable to define gp120 variables/changes which should be included in predictive algorithms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5078-5084
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Infectious Diseases


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