Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy: A 6-year survey

Claudio Velati, Luisa Romanò, Laura Fomiatti, Lorella Baruffi, Alessandro Remo Zanetti, L. Sciariada, L. Lobbiani, D. Prati, M. Marconi, F. Ravagnani, E. Rossi, S. Rossini, P. Bellavita, G. A. Moroni, U. Bodini, P. Pagliaro, F. Azzario, D. Rossi, G. Sciorelli, L. SalvaneschiG. Cambiè, M. Marini, G. Pizzoccolo, G. B. Gazzola, E. Peres, C. Mariottini, G. Graziani, U. Baicchi, P. Palla, L. Vacri, P. Strada, M. Miceli, P. Iudicone, G. Girelli, A. Ursitti, G. De Silvestro, R. Gentile, P. Di Paola, M. Manca, L. Martinelli, P. Bonomo, S. Calabrese, G. Pistolese, G. Aprili, F. Bressan, M. Ripamonti, A. Catalano, P. Gallerano, I. Giacalone, A. Fiorilla, G. Giannotti, R. Cantella, M. G. Di Persia, V. Esposito, C. Sardella, D. Di Monte, M. Bajorek, A. Reina, C. M. Silvani, M. Piani, G. Salvoni, L. De Felice, M. Macrì, M. De Palma, C. Vecchi, M. Belloni, C. Bettini, P. Ghiazza, D. De Santis, L. Di Mauro, S. Antoncecchi, C. Rinaldi, G. Allegreita, L. Siracusano, R. Adami, M. Lanteri, C. Mazzei, G. Tagariello, G. B. Gajo, P. Berti, C. Giordano, G. Palazzesi, B. Del Gusto, A. Pavone, M. Vacchini, A. Tomasini, G. Vaselli, F. Fiorin, G. Bresolin, F. Bertola, D. Testa, G. Semino, I. Tomasini, P. Zucchelli, R. Chicchi, G. Peano, D. Franchi, M. Sabelli, G. Miloro, P. Di Gregorio, P. Reimondo, G. Cimino, G. Tripodi, P. Borzini, M. Tarditi, T. Cocchi, V. Pata, R. Santarelli, W. Geremicca, A. Minerva, F. P. Maccarione, F. Solanda, P. Rivasi, M. G. Di Persia, F. Carubia, O. Prinoth, A. Ostuni, M. Bossio, A. Maggiotto, F. Valentino, P. Puzzonia, C. Musto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in several European countries and in the United States, while hepatitis B virus (HBV) NAT is still being questioned by opinions both in favor and against such an option, depending on the HBV endemicity, health care resources, and expected benefits. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This survey was aimed to assess the NAT impact in improving the safety of blood supply in Italy, 6 years after implementation. The study involved 93 Italian transfusion centers and was carried out in 2001 through 2006. A total of 10,776,288 units were tested for the presence of HCV RNA, 7,932,430 for HIV RNA, and 3,405,497 for HBV DNA, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven donations or 2.5 per million tested were HCV RNA-positive/anti-HCV- negative; 14 or 1.8 per million units tested were HIV RNA-positive/anti-HIV- negative; and 197 or 57.8 per million donations tested were HBV DNA-positive/hepatitis B surface antigen-negative. Of the latter, 8 (2.3/10 6) were collected from donors in the window phase of infection and 189 (55.5/106) from donors with occult HBV. Sixty-eight percent of the latter donors had hepatitis B surface antibody, 74.5 percent of whom with concentrations considered protective (≥10 mIU/mL). CONCLUSION: NAT implementation has improved blood safety by reducing the risk of entering 2.5 HCV and 1.8 HIV infectious units per million donations into the blood supply. The yield of NAT in detecting infectious blood before transfusion was higher for HBV than for HCV or HIV. However, the benefit of HBV NAT in terms of avoided HBV-related morbidity and mortality in blood recipients needs to be further evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2205-2213
Number of pages9
JournalTransfusion
Volume48
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008

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Blood Safety
Hepatitis B virus
Hepacivirus
Nucleic Acids
Italy
HIV
RNA
Tissue Donors
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Surveys and Questionnaires
Health Resources
DNA
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Blood Donors
Blood Transfusion
Morbidity
Delivery of Health Care
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy : A 6-year survey. / Velati, Claudio; Romanò, Luisa; Fomiatti, Laura; Baruffi, Lorella; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo; Sciariada, L.; Lobbiani, L.; Prati, D.; Marconi, M.; Ravagnani, F.; Rossi, E.; Rossini, S.; Bellavita, P.; Moroni, G. A.; Bodini, U.; Pagliaro, P.; Azzario, F.; Rossi, D.; Sciorelli, G.; Salvaneschi, L.; Cambiè, G.; Marini, M.; Pizzoccolo, G.; Gazzola, G. B.; Peres, E.; Mariottini, C.; Graziani, G.; Baicchi, U.; Palla, P.; Vacri, L.; Strada, P.; Miceli, M.; Iudicone, P.; Girelli, G.; Ursitti, A.; De Silvestro, G.; Gentile, R.; Di Paola, P.; Manca, M.; Martinelli, L.; Bonomo, P.; Calabrese, S.; Pistolese, G.; Aprili, G.; Bressan, F.; Ripamonti, M.; Catalano, A.; Gallerano, P.; Giacalone, I.; Fiorilla, A.; Giannotti, G.; Cantella, R.; Di Persia, M. G.; Esposito, V.; Sardella, C.; Di Monte, D.; Bajorek, M.; Reina, A.; Silvani, C. M.; Piani, M.; Salvoni, G.; De Felice, L.; Macrì, M.; De Palma, M.; Vecchi, C.; Belloni, M.; Bettini, C.; Ghiazza, P.; De Santis, D.; Di Mauro, L.; Antoncecchi, S.; Rinaldi, C.; Allegreita, G.; Siracusano, L.; Adami, R.; Lanteri, M.; Mazzei, C.; Tagariello, G.; Gajo, G. B.; Berti, P.; Giordano, C.; Palazzesi, G.; Del Gusto, B.; Pavone, A.; Vacchini, M.; Tomasini, A.; Vaselli, G.; Fiorin, F.; Bresolin, G.; Bertola, F.; Testa, D.; Semino, G.; Tomasini, I.; Zucchelli, P.; Chicchi, R.; Peano, G.; Franchi, D.; Sabelli, M.; Miloro, G.; Di Gregorio, P.; Reimondo, P.; Cimino, G.; Tripodi, G.; Borzini, P.; Tarditi, M.; Cocchi, T.; Pata, V.; Santarelli, R.; Geremicca, W.; Minerva, A.; Maccarione, F. P.; Solanda, F.; Rivasi, P.; Di Persia, M. G.; Carubia, F.; Prinoth, O.; Ostuni, A.; Bossio, M.; Maggiotto, A.; Valentino, F.; Puzzonia, P.; Musto, C.

In: Transfusion, Vol. 48, No. 10, 10.2008, p. 2205-2213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Velati, C, Romanò, L, Fomiatti, L, Baruffi, L, Zanetti, AR, Sciariada, L, Lobbiani, L, Prati, D, Marconi, M, Ravagnani, F, Rossi, E, Rossini, S, Bellavita, P, Moroni, GA, Bodini, U, Pagliaro, P, Azzario, F, Rossi, D, Sciorelli, G, Salvaneschi, L, Cambiè, G, Marini, M, Pizzoccolo, G, Gazzola, GB, Peres, E, Mariottini, C, Graziani, G, Baicchi, U, Palla, P, Vacri, L, Strada, P, Miceli, M, Iudicone, P, Girelli, G, Ursitti, A, De Silvestro, G, Gentile, R, Di Paola, P, Manca, M, Martinelli, L, Bonomo, P, Calabrese, S, Pistolese, G, Aprili, G, Bressan, F, Ripamonti, M, Catalano, A, Gallerano, P, Giacalone, I, Fiorilla, A, Giannotti, G, Cantella, R, Di Persia, MG, Esposito, V, Sardella, C, Di Monte, D, Bajorek, M, Reina, A, Silvani, CM, Piani, M, Salvoni, G, De Felice, L, Macrì, M, De Palma, M, Vecchi, C, Belloni, M, Bettini, C, Ghiazza, P, De Santis, D, Di Mauro, L, Antoncecchi, S, Rinaldi, C, Allegreita, G, Siracusano, L, Adami, R, Lanteri, M, Mazzei, C, Tagariello, G, Gajo, GB, Berti, P, Giordano, C, Palazzesi, G, Del Gusto, B, Pavone, A, Vacchini, M, Tomasini, A, Vaselli, G, Fiorin, F, Bresolin, G, Bertola, F, Testa, D, Semino, G, Tomasini, I, Zucchelli, P, Chicchi, R, Peano, G, Franchi, D, Sabelli, M, Miloro, G, Di Gregorio, P, Reimondo, P, Cimino, G, Tripodi, G, Borzini, P, Tarditi, M, Cocchi, T, Pata, V, Santarelli, R, Geremicca, W, Minerva, A, Maccarione, FP, Solanda, F, Rivasi, P, Di Persia, MG, Carubia, F, Prinoth, O, Ostuni, A, Bossio, M, Maggiotto, A, Valentino, F, Puzzonia, P & Musto, C 2008, 'Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy: A 6-year survey', Transfusion, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2205-2213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01813.x
Velati, Claudio ; Romanò, Luisa ; Fomiatti, Laura ; Baruffi, Lorella ; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo ; Sciariada, L. ; Lobbiani, L. ; Prati, D. ; Marconi, M. ; Ravagnani, F. ; Rossi, E. ; Rossini, S. ; Bellavita, P. ; Moroni, G. A. ; Bodini, U. ; Pagliaro, P. ; Azzario, F. ; Rossi, D. ; Sciorelli, G. ; Salvaneschi, L. ; Cambiè, G. ; Marini, M. ; Pizzoccolo, G. ; Gazzola, G. B. ; Peres, E. ; Mariottini, C. ; Graziani, G. ; Baicchi, U. ; Palla, P. ; Vacri, L. ; Strada, P. ; Miceli, M. ; Iudicone, P. ; Girelli, G. ; Ursitti, A. ; De Silvestro, G. ; Gentile, R. ; Di Paola, P. ; Manca, M. ; Martinelli, L. ; Bonomo, P. ; Calabrese, S. ; Pistolese, G. ; Aprili, G. ; Bressan, F. ; Ripamonti, M. ; Catalano, A. ; Gallerano, P. ; Giacalone, I. ; Fiorilla, A. ; Giannotti, G. ; Cantella, R. ; Di Persia, M. G. ; Esposito, V. ; Sardella, C. ; Di Monte, D. ; Bajorek, M. ; Reina, A. ; Silvani, C. M. ; Piani, M. ; Salvoni, G. ; De Felice, L. ; Macrì, M. ; De Palma, M. ; Vecchi, C. ; Belloni, M. ; Bettini, C. ; Ghiazza, P. ; De Santis, D. ; Di Mauro, L. ; Antoncecchi, S. ; Rinaldi, C. ; Allegreita, G. ; Siracusano, L. ; Adami, R. ; Lanteri, M. ; Mazzei, C. ; Tagariello, G. ; Gajo, G. B. ; Berti, P. ; Giordano, C. ; Palazzesi, G. ; Del Gusto, B. ; Pavone, A. ; Vacchini, M. ; Tomasini, A. ; Vaselli, G. ; Fiorin, F. ; Bresolin, G. ; Bertola, F. ; Testa, D. ; Semino, G. ; Tomasini, I. ; Zucchelli, P. ; Chicchi, R. ; Peano, G. ; Franchi, D. ; Sabelli, M. ; Miloro, G. ; Di Gregorio, P. ; Reimondo, P. ; Cimino, G. ; Tripodi, G. ; Borzini, P. ; Tarditi, M. ; Cocchi, T. ; Pata, V. ; Santarelli, R. ; Geremicca, W. ; Minerva, A. ; Maccarione, F. P. ; Solanda, F. ; Rivasi, P. ; Di Persia, M. G. ; Carubia, F. ; Prinoth, O. ; Ostuni, A. ; Bossio, M. ; Maggiotto, A. ; Valentino, F. ; Puzzonia, P. ; Musto, C. / Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy : A 6-year survey. In: Transfusion. 2008 ; Vol. 48, No. 10. pp. 2205-2213.
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title = "Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy: A 6-year survey",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in several European countries and in the United States, while hepatitis B virus (HBV) NAT is still being questioned by opinions both in favor and against such an option, depending on the HBV endemicity, health care resources, and expected benefits. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This survey was aimed to assess the NAT impact in improving the safety of blood supply in Italy, 6 years after implementation. The study involved 93 Italian transfusion centers and was carried out in 2001 through 2006. A total of 10,776,288 units were tested for the presence of HCV RNA, 7,932,430 for HIV RNA, and 3,405,497 for HBV DNA, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven donations or 2.5 per million tested were HCV RNA-positive/anti-HCV- negative; 14 or 1.8 per million units tested were HIV RNA-positive/anti-HIV- negative; and 197 or 57.8 per million donations tested were HBV DNA-positive/hepatitis B surface antigen-negative. Of the latter, 8 (2.3/10 6) were collected from donors in the window phase of infection and 189 (55.5/106) from donors with occult HBV. Sixty-eight percent of the latter donors had hepatitis B surface antibody, 74.5 percent of whom with concentrations considered protective (≥10 mIU/mL). CONCLUSION: NAT implementation has improved blood safety by reducing the risk of entering 2.5 HCV and 1.8 HIV infectious units per million donations into the blood supply. The yield of NAT in detecting infectious blood before transfusion was higher for HBV than for HCV or HIV. However, the benefit of HBV NAT in terms of avoided HBV-related morbidity and mortality in blood recipients needs to be further evaluated.",
author = "Claudio Velati and Luisa Roman{\`o} and Laura Fomiatti and Lorella Baruffi and Zanetti, {Alessandro Remo} and L. Sciariada and L. Lobbiani and D. Prati and M. Marconi and F. Ravagnani and E. Rossi and S. Rossini and P. Bellavita and Moroni, {G. A.} and U. Bodini and P. Pagliaro and F. Azzario and D. Rossi and G. Sciorelli and L. Salvaneschi and G. Cambi{\`e} and M. Marini and G. Pizzoccolo and Gazzola, {G. B.} and E. Peres and C. Mariottini and G. Graziani and U. Baicchi and P. Palla and L. Vacri and P. Strada and M. Miceli and P. Iudicone and G. Girelli and A. Ursitti and {De Silvestro}, G. and R. Gentile and {Di Paola}, P. and M. Manca and L. Martinelli and P. Bonomo and S. Calabrese and G. Pistolese and G. Aprili and F. Bressan and M. Ripamonti and A. Catalano and P. Gallerano and I. Giacalone and A. Fiorilla and G. Giannotti and R. Cantella and {Di Persia}, {M. G.} and V. Esposito and C. Sardella and {Di Monte}, D. and M. Bajorek and A. Reina and Silvani, {C. M.} and M. Piani and G. Salvoni and {De Felice}, L. and M. Macr{\`i} and {De Palma}, M. and C. Vecchi and M. Belloni and C. Bettini and P. Ghiazza and {De Santis}, D. and {Di Mauro}, L. and S. Antoncecchi and C. Rinaldi and G. Allegreita and L. Siracusano and R. Adami and M. Lanteri and C. Mazzei and G. Tagariello and Gajo, {G. B.} and P. Berti and C. Giordano and G. Palazzesi and {Del Gusto}, B. and A. Pavone and M. Vacchini and A. Tomasini and G. Vaselli and F. Fiorin and G. Bresolin and F. Bertola and D. Testa and G. Semino and I. Tomasini and P. Zucchelli and R. Chicchi and G. Peano and D. Franchi and M. Sabelli and G. Miloro and {Di Gregorio}, P. and P. Reimondo and G. Cimino and G. Tripodi and P. Borzini and M. Tarditi and T. Cocchi and V. Pata and R. Santarelli and W. Geremicca and A. Minerva and Maccarione, {F. P.} and F. Solanda and P. Rivasi and {Di Persia}, {M. G.} and F. Carubia and O. Prinoth and A. Ostuni and M. Bossio and A. Maggiotto and F. Valentino and P. Puzzonia and C. Musto",
year = "2008",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01813.x",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "2205--2213",
journal = "Transfusion",
issn = "0041-1132",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy

T2 - A 6-year survey

AU - Velati, Claudio

AU - Romanò, Luisa

AU - Fomiatti, Laura

AU - Baruffi, Lorella

AU - Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

AU - Sciariada, L.

AU - Lobbiani, L.

AU - Prati, D.

AU - Marconi, M.

AU - Ravagnani, F.

AU - Rossi, E.

AU - Rossini, S.

AU - Bellavita, P.

AU - Moroni, G. A.

AU - Bodini, U.

AU - Pagliaro, P.

AU - Azzario, F.

AU - Rossi, D.

AU - Sciorelli, G.

AU - Salvaneschi, L.

AU - Cambiè, G.

AU - Marini, M.

AU - Pizzoccolo, G.

AU - Gazzola, G. B.

AU - Peres, E.

AU - Mariottini, C.

AU - Graziani, G.

AU - Baicchi, U.

AU - Palla, P.

AU - Vacri, L.

AU - Strada, P.

AU - Miceli, M.

AU - Iudicone, P.

AU - Girelli, G.

AU - Ursitti, A.

AU - De Silvestro, G.

AU - Gentile, R.

AU - Di Paola, P.

AU - Manca, M.

AU - Martinelli, L.

AU - Bonomo, P.

AU - Calabrese, S.

AU - Pistolese, G.

AU - Aprili, G.

AU - Bressan, F.

AU - Ripamonti, M.

AU - Catalano, A.

AU - Gallerano, P.

AU - Giacalone, I.

AU - Fiorilla, A.

AU - Giannotti, G.

AU - Cantella, R.

AU - Di Persia, M. G.

AU - Esposito, V.

AU - Sardella, C.

AU - Di Monte, D.

AU - Bajorek, M.

AU - Reina, A.

AU - Silvani, C. M.

AU - Piani, M.

AU - Salvoni, G.

AU - De Felice, L.

AU - Macrì, M.

AU - De Palma, M.

AU - Vecchi, C.

AU - Belloni, M.

AU - Bettini, C.

AU - Ghiazza, P.

AU - De Santis, D.

AU - Di Mauro, L.

AU - Antoncecchi, S.

AU - Rinaldi, C.

AU - Allegreita, G.

AU - Siracusano, L.

AU - Adami, R.

AU - Lanteri, M.

AU - Mazzei, C.

AU - Tagariello, G.

AU - Gajo, G. B.

AU - Berti, P.

AU - Giordano, C.

AU - Palazzesi, G.

AU - Del Gusto, B.

AU - Pavone, A.

AU - Vacchini, M.

AU - Tomasini, A.

AU - Vaselli, G.

AU - Fiorin, F.

AU - Bresolin, G.

AU - Bertola, F.

AU - Testa, D.

AU - Semino, G.

AU - Tomasini, I.

AU - Zucchelli, P.

AU - Chicchi, R.

AU - Peano, G.

AU - Franchi, D.

AU - Sabelli, M.

AU - Miloro, G.

AU - Di Gregorio, P.

AU - Reimondo, P.

AU - Cimino, G.

AU - Tripodi, G.

AU - Borzini, P.

AU - Tarditi, M.

AU - Cocchi, T.

AU - Pata, V.

AU - Santarelli, R.

AU - Geremicca, W.

AU - Minerva, A.

AU - Maccarione, F. P.

AU - Solanda, F.

AU - Rivasi, P.

AU - Di Persia, M. G.

AU - Carubia, F.

AU - Prinoth, O.

AU - Ostuni, A.

AU - Bossio, M.

AU - Maggiotto, A.

AU - Valentino, F.

AU - Puzzonia, P.

AU - Musto, C.

PY - 2008/10

Y1 - 2008/10

N2 - BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in several European countries and in the United States, while hepatitis B virus (HBV) NAT is still being questioned by opinions both in favor and against such an option, depending on the HBV endemicity, health care resources, and expected benefits. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This survey was aimed to assess the NAT impact in improving the safety of blood supply in Italy, 6 years after implementation. The study involved 93 Italian transfusion centers and was carried out in 2001 through 2006. A total of 10,776,288 units were tested for the presence of HCV RNA, 7,932,430 for HIV RNA, and 3,405,497 for HBV DNA, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven donations or 2.5 per million tested were HCV RNA-positive/anti-HCV- negative; 14 or 1.8 per million units tested were HIV RNA-positive/anti-HIV- negative; and 197 or 57.8 per million donations tested were HBV DNA-positive/hepatitis B surface antigen-negative. Of the latter, 8 (2.3/10 6) were collected from donors in the window phase of infection and 189 (55.5/106) from donors with occult HBV. Sixty-eight percent of the latter donors had hepatitis B surface antibody, 74.5 percent of whom with concentrations considered protective (≥10 mIU/mL). CONCLUSION: NAT implementation has improved blood safety by reducing the risk of entering 2.5 HCV and 1.8 HIV infectious units per million donations into the blood supply. The yield of NAT in detecting infectious blood before transfusion was higher for HBV than for HCV or HIV. However, the benefit of HBV NAT in terms of avoided HBV-related morbidity and mortality in blood recipients needs to be further evaluated.

AB - BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in several European countries and in the United States, while hepatitis B virus (HBV) NAT is still being questioned by opinions both in favor and against such an option, depending on the HBV endemicity, health care resources, and expected benefits. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This survey was aimed to assess the NAT impact in improving the safety of blood supply in Italy, 6 years after implementation. The study involved 93 Italian transfusion centers and was carried out in 2001 through 2006. A total of 10,776,288 units were tested for the presence of HCV RNA, 7,932,430 for HIV RNA, and 3,405,497 for HBV DNA, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven donations or 2.5 per million tested were HCV RNA-positive/anti-HCV- negative; 14 or 1.8 per million units tested were HIV RNA-positive/anti-HIV- negative; and 197 or 57.8 per million donations tested were HBV DNA-positive/hepatitis B surface antigen-negative. Of the latter, 8 (2.3/10 6) were collected from donors in the window phase of infection and 189 (55.5/106) from donors with occult HBV. Sixty-eight percent of the latter donors had hepatitis B surface antibody, 74.5 percent of whom with concentrations considered protective (≥10 mIU/mL). CONCLUSION: NAT implementation has improved blood safety by reducing the risk of entering 2.5 HCV and 1.8 HIV infectious units per million donations into the blood supply. The yield of NAT in detecting infectious blood before transfusion was higher for HBV than for HCV or HIV. However, the benefit of HBV NAT in terms of avoided HBV-related morbidity and mortality in blood recipients needs to be further evaluated.

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U2 - 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01813.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01813.x

M3 - Article

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EP - 2213

JO - Transfusion

JF - Transfusion

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