Impact of recruitment and retention on all-cause mortality in a large all-comers randomised controlled trial: insights from the GLOBAL LEADERS trial

Kuniaki Takahashi, Norihiro Kogame, Mariusz Tomaniak, Ply Chichareon, Chun-Chin Chang, Rodrigo Modolo, Edouard Benit, Christoph Liebetrau, Luc Janssens, Maurizio Ferrario, Aleksander Zurakowski, Robert Jan van Geuns, Marcello Dominici, Kurt Huber, Pawel Buszman, Leonardo Bolognese, Carlo Tumscitz, Krzysztof Żmudka, Adel Aminian, Mathias VrolixIvo Petrov, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Robbert J de Winter, Christian Hamm, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Yoshinobu Onuma, Marco Valgimigli, Stephan Windecker, Pascal Vranckx, Scot Garg, Patrick W Serruys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Recruitment and retention in trials may bias the results and subsequently complicate their interpretation and validity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of recruitment and retention on all-cause mortality in a large all-comers trial.

METHODS: The recruitment rate in each investigating center of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial was assessed and the 130 centers were subdivided into low and high recruiters according to the median, with all-cause mortality then compared between the two groups. Vital status was obtained from public records in patients with incomplete follow-up.

RESULTS: The trial randomized 15,991 (7.86%) of 203,483 eligible patients with percutaneous coronary intervention during the recruitment period, of whom 15,267 (95.47%) completed follow-up, 23 (0.14%) patients withdrew consent and formally requested to be deleted from the database; 183 (1.14%) withdrew consent but only objected to future data collection; 303 (1.89%) discontinued the study; and 215 (1.34%) were lost to follow-up. Vital status was finally obtained in all but 31 patients (99.81%). Patients from low recruiters had a significantly lower all-cause mortality than high ones (2.26% vs. 3.24%; hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.87; p = 0.002). There was a significant difference in all-cause mortality among the incomplete follow-up groups (log-rank p < 0.001) with a significantly higher mortality in the 183 patients who withdrew consent than those who completed follow-up (7.38% vs. 2.99%, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention significantly impacted all-cause mortality. Search for vital status through public domains is of paramount importance in the interpretation and validity of large clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-929
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Research in Cardiology
Volume109
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

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