Impact of Smoking Habit on Perioperative Morbidity in Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy for Urothelial Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

European Association of Urology–Young Academic Urologists Urothelial Carcinoma Working Group (EAU-YAU)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

CONTEXT: Smoking habit at the time of surgery is associated with higher perioperative complications and mortality across different types of surgeries. In recent years, several studies have attempted to explore the influence of smoking on perioperative outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) with contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate and meta-analyze the association between smoking habit and perioperative morbidity and mortality in UBC patients treated with RC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature published between January 2000 and January 2020 investigating the impact of smoking habit on perioperative outcomes of patients treated with RC for UBC was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 27 articles involving 27 854 patients were included in the systematic review, and of these, 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies included showed a moderate to high risk of bias. Smoking status (smokers vs nonsmokers) was significantly associated with the onset of major postoperative complications (hazard ratio [HR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-2.32; I2 = 0%), infections (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.72; I2 = 66.2%), and mortality (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.14-2.98; I2 = 4.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status at the time of RC is associated with increased risk for major postoperative complications, infections, and mortality. These results suggest the need for strict postoperative monitoring in smokers due to the increased risk of experiencing adverse events and underline the need for intensive smoking cessation interventions in the preoperative setting. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we reviewed the impact of smoking habit on perioperative outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC). Based on the available data, the impact of smoking on morbidity and mortality after RC is significant and relevant; as such, every effort should be made in the preoperative setting to encourage smoking cessation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)580-593
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean urology oncology
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2021

Keywords

  • Complication
  • Infection
  • Outcome
  • Perioperative mortality
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Smoking exposure
  • Urothelial bladder cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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