In this article, we review the literature and our personal experience regarding the many factors that appear to influence implantation rate. Oocyte quality, as determined by patient age and aneuploidies, probably plays a major role in RIF. However, a panoply of other factors have been brought under investigation, quite often with contradictory results and additional intriguing questions to be studied. Infections of the vagina, cervix, and endometrium, the role of mucus aspiration and washing of the cervix on transfer, the role of catheter guidance for a correct transfer and potion of embryos, the effect of mock transfer, and the role of hysteroscopy and its timing before transfer procedures are analyzed both as a review of the literature and as opinions and data from our experience. Many of these factors are interlaced and from the apparently simple issue of trauma, to infections and immune modulation of hatching and implantation, a biological continuum can easily be identified. The impact of abnormalities of the immune system and of homeostasis abnormalities is also covered in a brief overview of reported works and our experience. These latter areas probably constitute the common biological background of all other external factors that, however, the skilled must equip themselves for improving implantation success.
- Embryo transfer
- Implantation failure
- In vitro fertilization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)