Background & Aims: The currently recommended first-line eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori in children is usually successful in about 75%. Recently, in adults, a novel 10-day sequential treatment has achieved an eradication rate of 95%. The aim of the study was to assess the H pylori eradication rate of the sequential treatment regimen compared with conventional triple therapy in children. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive children with H pylori infection were randomized to receive either sequential treatment (omeprazole plus amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by omeprazole plus clarithromycin plus tinidazole for another 5 days) (n = 38; 15 boys [39.5%]; median age, 11.0 years [range, 3.3-16 years]) or triple therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole) for 1 week (n = 37; 15 boys [40.5%]; median age, 9.9 years [range, 4.3-16 years]). H pylori infection was based on 2 out of 3 positive tests results: 13C-urea breath test, rapid urease test, and histologic analysis. Eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test 8 weeks after therapy. Results: Seventy-four patients completed the study. H pylori eradication was achieved in 36 children receiving sequential treatment (97.3%; 95% confidence interval, 86.2-99.5) and 28 children receiving triple therapy (75.7%; 95% confidence interval, 59.8-86.7) (P <.02). Compliance with therapy was good (>95%) in all. Conclusions: Our study shows, for the first time in children, that 10-day sequential treatment achieves a higher eradication rate than standard triple therapy, which is consistent with the results of adult studies.
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