In central obesity, weight loss restores platelet sensitivity to nitric oxide and prostacyclin

Isabella Russo, Monica Traversa, Katia Bonomo, Alessandro De Salve, Luigi Mattiello, Paola Del Mese, Gabriella Doronzo, Franco Cavalot, Mariella Trovati, Giovanni Anfossi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Central obesity shows impaired platelet responses to the antiaggregating effects of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and their effectorsguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and adenosine 3′,5′- cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). The influence of weight loss on these alterations is not known. To evaluate whether a diet-induced body-weight reduction restores platelet sensitivity to the physiological antiaggregating agents and reduces platelet activation in subjects affected by central obesity, we studied 20 centrally obese subjects before and after a 6-month diet intervention aiming at reducing body weight by 10%, by measuring (i) insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR)); (ii) plasma lipids; (iii) circulating markers of inflammation of adipose tissue and endothelial dysfunction, and of platelet activation (i.e., soluble CD-40 ligand (sCD-40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin)); (iv) ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the prostacyclin analog Iloprost and the cyclic nucleotide analogs 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) and 8-bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) to reduce platelet aggregation in response to adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP); and (v) ability of SNP and Iloprost to increase cGMP and cAMP. The 10 subjects who reached the body-weight target showed significant reductions of insulin resistance, adipose tissue, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet activation, and a significant increase of the ability of SNP, Iloprost, 8-Br-cGMP, and 8-Br-cAMP to reduce ADP-induced platelet aggregation and of the ability of SNP and Iloprost to increase cyclic nucleotide concentrations. No change was observed in the 10 subjects who did not reach the body-weight target. Changes of platelet function correlated with changes of HOMA IR. Thus, in central obesity, diet-induced weight loss reduces platelet activation and restores the sensitivity to the physiological antiaggregating agents, with a correlation with improvements in insulin sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)788-797
Number of pages10
JournalObesity
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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