Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) has been used to deal with life-threatening complications as well as back-up or active cardiovascular support during high-risk procedures in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). PubMed and MEDLINE electronic databases were searched in order to identify studies with emergency or prophylactic V-A ECMO application in association with TAVI procedures. From November 2012 to November 2017, 14 relevant studies were identified that included 5,115 TAVI patients of whom 102 (2%) required V-A ECMO (22 prophylactically, 66 as an emergency and 14 without a reported indication). The reason for emergency V-A ECMO institution was detailed in 64 patients: left ventricle free wall rupture (n = 14), haemodynamic instability (n = 12), ventricular arrhythmias (n = 7), aortic annulus rupture (n = 6), coronary obstruction (n = 6), low left ventricular output (ejection fraction <35%) (n = 5), uncontrollable bleeding (n = 5), severe aortic regurgitation (n = 4), prosthesis embolisation (n = 3), aortic dissection (n = 1) and respiratory failure (n = 1). Femoral arterial and vein cannulation was the most common access technique for V-A ECMO institution. Major bleeding (n = 7) and vascular access complications (n = 7) were reported after ECMO institution. The overall in-hospital survival was 73% (61% in the emergency vs. 100% in the prophylactic group). V-A ECMO support should be available at any centre performing TAVI and provides effective mechanical circulatory support in an emergency setting. We present an algorithm to aid decisions about prophylactic circulatory assistance with V-A ECMO and it should form part of the heart team discussion before a TAVI procedure is undertaken.