In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

Petra Martini, Alessandra Boschi, Gianfranco Cicoria, Federico Zagni, Andrea Corazza, Licia Uccelli, Micòl Pasquali, Gaia Pupillo, Mario Marengo, Massimo Loriggiola, Hanna Skliarova, Liliana Mou, Sara Cisternino, Sara Carturan, Laura Melendez-Alafort, Nikolay M Uzunov, Michele Bello, Carlos Rossi Alvarez, Juan Esposito, Adriano Duatti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [99mTc][TcO4]- ubiquitously employed for the production of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99Mo/99mTc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-331
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Radiation and Isotopes
Volume139
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

Fingerprint

cyclotrons
purity
technetium
emergencies
nuclear physics
quality control
purification
nuclear reactions
radioactive isotopes
generators
recovery
routes
irradiation
energy

Keywords

  • Cyclotrons
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital
  • Quality Control
  • Radiopharmaceuticals/isolation & purification
  • Technetium/isolation & purification
  • Technology, Radiologic/instrumentation

Cite this

Martini, P., Boschi, A., Cicoria, G., Zagni, F., Corazza, A., Uccelli, L., ... Duatti, A. (2018). In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 139, 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.05.033

In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals. / Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano.

In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 139, 09.2018, p. 325-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martini, P, Boschi, A, Cicoria, G, Zagni, F, Corazza, A, Uccelli, L, Pasquali, M, Pupillo, G, Marengo, M, Loriggiola, M, Skliarova, H, Mou, L, Cisternino, S, Carturan, S, Melendez-Alafort, L, Uzunov, NM, Bello, M, Alvarez, CR, Esposito, J & Duatti, A 2018, 'In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals', Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 139, pp. 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.05.033
Martini, Petra ; Boschi, Alessandra ; Cicoria, Gianfranco ; Zagni, Federico ; Corazza, Andrea ; Uccelli, Licia ; Pasquali, Micòl ; Pupillo, Gaia ; Marengo, Mario ; Loriggiola, Massimo ; Skliarova, Hanna ; Mou, Liliana ; Cisternino, Sara ; Carturan, Sara ; Melendez-Alafort, Laura ; Uzunov, Nikolay M ; Bello, Michele ; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi ; Esposito, Juan ; Duatti, Adriano. / In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals. In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2018 ; Vol. 139. pp. 325-331.
@article{f2e0afbb7fcd44b3aa52a108a0a495bd,
title = "In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals",
abstract = "In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [99mTc][TcO4]- ubiquitously employed for the production of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99Mo/99mTc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example.",
keywords = "Cyclotrons, Humans, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital, Phantoms, Imaging, Pharmacy Service, Hospital, Quality Control, Radiopharmaceuticals/isolation & purification, Technetium/isolation & purification, Technology, Radiologic/instrumentation",
author = "Petra Martini and Alessandra Boschi and Gianfranco Cicoria and Federico Zagni and Andrea Corazza and Licia Uccelli and Mic{\`o}l Pasquali and Gaia Pupillo and Mario Marengo and Massimo Loriggiola and Hanna Skliarova and Liliana Mou and Sara Cisternino and Sara Carturan and Laura Melendez-Alafort and Uzunov, {Nikolay M} and Michele Bello and Alvarez, {Carlos Rossi} and Juan Esposito and Adriano Duatti",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.05.033",
language = "English",
volume = "139",
pages = "325--331",
journal = "Applied Radiation and Isotopes",
issn = "0969-8043",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

AU - Martini, Petra

AU - Boschi, Alessandra

AU - Cicoria, Gianfranco

AU - Zagni, Federico

AU - Corazza, Andrea

AU - Uccelli, Licia

AU - Pasquali, Micòl

AU - Pupillo, Gaia

AU - Marengo, Mario

AU - Loriggiola, Massimo

AU - Skliarova, Hanna

AU - Mou, Liliana

AU - Cisternino, Sara

AU - Carturan, Sara

AU - Melendez-Alafort, Laura

AU - Uzunov, Nikolay M

AU - Bello, Michele

AU - Alvarez, Carlos Rossi

AU - Esposito, Juan

AU - Duatti, Adriano

N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [99mTc][TcO4]- ubiquitously employed for the production of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99Mo/99mTc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example.

AB - In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [99mTc][TcO4]- ubiquitously employed for the production of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99Mo/99mTc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example.

KW - Cyclotrons

KW - Humans

KW - Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital

KW - Phantoms, Imaging

KW - Pharmacy Service, Hospital

KW - Quality Control

KW - Radiopharmaceuticals/isolation & purification

KW - Technetium/isolation & purification

KW - Technology, Radiologic/instrumentation

U2 - 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.05.033

DO - 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.05.033

M3 - Article

C2 - 29936404

VL - 139

SP - 325

EP - 331

JO - Applied Radiation and Isotopes

JF - Applied Radiation and Isotopes

SN - 0969-8043

ER -