Background: The pharmacokinetic properties and clinical advantages of the local anesthetic chloroprocaine are well known. Here, we studied the pharmacokinetic profile of a new hydrogel device loaded with chloroprocaine to investigate the potential advantages of this new strategy for postoperative pain (POP) relief. Materials and methods: We performed both in vitro and in vivo analyses by considering plasma samples of four piglets receiving slow-release chloroprocaine. To quantify chloroprocaine and its inactive metabolite 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid (ACBA), a HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analytical method was used. Serial blood samples were collected over 108 hours, according to the exposure time to the device. Results: Chloroprocaine was consistently found to be below the lower limit of quantification, even though a well-defined peak was observed in every chromatogram at an unexpected retention time. Concerning ACBA, we found detectable plasma concentrations between T0 and T12h, with a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) observed 3 hours after the device application. In the in vitro analyses, the nanogel remained in contact with plasma at 37°C for 90 minutes, 3 hours, 1 day, and 7 days. Chloroprocaine Cmax was identified 1 day following exposure and Cmin after 7 days, respectively. Additionally, ACBA reached the Cmax following 7 days of exposure. Conclusion: A thorough review of the literature indicates that this is the first study analyzing both in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetic profiles of a chloroprocaine hydrogel device and is considered as a pilot study on the feasibility of including this approach to the management of POP.
- Hydrogel device
- Postoperative outcome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine