In vitro characterization, ADME analysis, and histological and toxicological evaluation of BM1, a macrocyclic amidinourea active against azole-resistant Candida strains

Francesco Orofino, Giuseppina I Truglio, Diego Fiorucci, Ilaria D'Agostino, Matteo Borgini, Federica Poggialini, Claudio Zamperini, Elena Dreassi, Laura Maccari, Riccardo Torelli, Cecilia Martini, Micaela Bernabei, Jacques F Meis, Nitesh Kumar Khandelwal, Rajendra Prasad, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Francesca Bugli, Maurizio Botta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Candida species are one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections among the opportunistic fungi. Extensive use of antifungal agents, most of which were launched on the market more than 20 years ago, led to the selection of drug-resistant or even multidrug-resistant fungi. We recently described a novel class of antifungal macrocyclic compounds with an amidinourea moiety that is highly active against azole-resistant Candida strains.

OBJECTIVE: A compound from this family, BM1, was investigated in terms of in vitro activity against various Candida species, including C. auris isolates, interaction with the ABC transporter, CDR6, and in vivo distribution and safety.

METHODS: In vitro assays (CYP inhibition, microsomal stability, permeability, spot assays) were used to collect chemical and biological data; animal models (rat) paired with LC-MS analysis were utilised to evaluate in vivo toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and distribution.

RESULTS: The current research shows BM1 has a low in vivo toxicity profile, affinity for the renal system in rats, and good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). BM1 also has potent activity against azole-resistant fungal strains, including C. auris isolates and CDR6-overexpressing strains.

CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against several Candida species, including preliminary data vs. C. auris. BM1 has good ADME and biochemical characteristics, is suitable and safe for daily administration and is particularly indicated for renal infections. These data indicate BM1 and its derivatives form a novel, promising antifungal class.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105865
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Dec 20 2019

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