Despite the growing interest in nanoparticles (NPs), their toxicity has not yet been defined and the development of new strategies and predictive models are required. Human stem cells (SCs) offer a promising and innovative cell-based model. Among SCs, mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) derived from cord lining membrane (CL) may represent a new species-specific tool for establishing efficient platforms for primary screening and toxicity/safety testing of NPs. Superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, including magnetite (Fe3 O4 NPs), have aroused great public health and scientific concerns despite their extensive uses. In this study, CL-MSCs were characterized and applied for in vitro toxicity screening of Fe3 O4 NPs. Cytotoxicity, internalization/uptake, differentiation and proliferative capacity were evaluated after exposure to different Fe3 O4 NP concentrations. Data were compared with those obtained from bone marrow (BM)-MSCs. We observed, at early passages (P3), that: (1) cytotoxicity occurred at 10 μg/mL in CL-MSCs and 100 μg/mL in BM-MSCs (no differences in toxicity, between CL- and BM-MSCs, were observed at higher dosage, 100-300 μg/mL); (2) cell density decrease and monolayer features loss were affected at ≥50 μg/mL in CL-MSCs only; and (3) NP uptake was concentration-dependent in both MSCs. After 100 μg/mL Fe3 O4 NP exposures, the capacity of proliferation was decreased (P5-P9) in CL-MSCs without morphology alteration. Moreover, a progressive decrease of intracellular Fe3 O4 NPs was observed over culture time. Antigen surface expression and multilineage differentiation were not influenced. These findings suggest that CL-MSCs could be used as a reliable cell-based model for Fe3 O4 NP toxicity screening evaluation and support the use of this approach for improving the confidence degree on the safety of NPs to predict health outcomes.