The production of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) by murine transformed cells was investigated in 10 cell lines derived from spontaneous or chemically induced tumours and from cells transformed by SV40 or Moloney-MSV; histologic types included carcinomas, sarcomas and melanoma. Nine of 10 supernatants contained CSF activity as judged by in vitro proliferation and differentiation of normal murine monocytic and granulocytic progenitors in agar cultures. Tumours induced with CSF-producing cells caused alterations of haemopoiesis which can include leukocytosis, granulocytosis and splenomegaly. Haemopoietic alterations were also evident in the absence of a local tumour in mice bearing large experimental lung metastases. Production of CSF seems to be a frequent finding among murine cell lines, and its biological and immunological consequences on host-tumour relationships should be taken into account.
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