In vivo real-time multiphoton imaging of T lymphocytes in the mouse brain after experimental stroke

Stefano Fumagalli, Jonathan A. Coles, Patrick Ejlerskov, Fabrizio Ortolano, Trevor J. Bushell, James M. Brewer, Maria Grazia De Simoni, Gary Dever, Paul Garside, Pasquale Maffia, Hilary V. Carswell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-To gain a better understanding of T cell behavior after stroke, we have developed real-time in vivo brain imaging of T cells by multiphoton microscopy after middle cerebral artery occlusion. METHODS-Adult male hCD2-GFP transgenic mice that exhibit green fluorescent protein-labeled T cells underwent permanent left distal middle cerebral artery occlusion by electrocoagulation (n=6) or sham surgery (n=6) and then multiphoton laser imaging 72 hours later. RESULTS-Extravasated T cell number significantly increased after middle cerebral artery occlusion versus sham. Two T cell populations existed after middle cerebral artery occlusion, possibly driven by 2 T cell subpopulations; 1 had significantly lower and the other significantly higher track velocity and displacement rate than sham. CONCLUSIONS-The different motilities and behaviors of T cells observed using our imaging approach after stroke could reveal important mechanisms of immune surveillance for future therapeutic exploitations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1429-1436
Number of pages8
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2011


  • cerebral infarction
  • cerebral ischemia
  • immune system
  • inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing


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