Inability of Asian risk scoring systems to predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance and coronary lesions in Kawasaki disease in an Italian cohort

Marianna Fabi, Laura Andreozzi, Elena Corinaldesi, Tetyana Bodnar, Francesca Lami, Cristina Cicero, Bertrand Tchana, Chiara Landini, Monica Sprocati, Barbara Bigucci, Claudia Balsamo, Paola Sogno Valin, Giorgia Di Fazzio, Lorenzo Iughetti, Enrico Valletta, Federico Marchetti, Andrea Donti, Marcello Lanari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is associated with coronary lesions (CALs) in Kawasaki disease (KD), it is crucial to identify patients at risk to protect them from coronary involvement. The available risk scores to predict IVIG resistance were developed in Asian populations in whom their effectiveness has been proven, but data on non-Asian children are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the Kobayashi, Egami, and Formosa risk scores to predict IVIG resistance and CALs in Italian patients with KD. A multicenter retrospective analysis involving children with KD diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 was carried out: 257 patients were enrolled (57.9% boys, 89.9% Caucasian); 43 patients were IVIG resistant (16.7%). The scores have low sensitivity and specificity in predicting IVIG resistance: respectively, KS 64% and 62.5%, ES 41.4% and 77.4%, and FS 70.8% and 44.9%. The predictive value of the 3 scores for predicting CALs was also poor. Conclusion: Kobayashi, Egami, and Formosa Scores are ineffective in predicting IVIG resistance and coronary involvement in a predominantly Caucasian cohort. A specific score system for mostly Caucasian children with KD is needed enable the early identification of those at risk for CALs who could benefit from intensified treatment.What is Known:• There are several risk scores developed in the Asian population to early identify patients with KD at risk for immunoglobulin-resistance and thus for coronary lesions.• Data are scarce on their effectiveness in non-Asian children.What is New:• We present a comprehensive analysis of the ability of 3 Asian risk scores in a cohort of mostly Caucasian children to predict immunoglobulin resistance and coronary involvement.• Low sensitivity and specificity of the Asian scores for immunoglobulin-resistance and coronary lesions suggest the need for criteria specific for different ethnicities.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Caucasian
  • Coronary artery lesions
  • IVIG resistance
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Risk-scoring systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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