Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), pseudo-PHP, acrodysostosis, and progressive osseous heteroplasia are heterogeneous disorders characterized by physical findings, differently associated in each subtype, including short bones, short stature, a stocky build, ectopic ossifications (features associated with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy), as well as laboratory abnormalities consistent with hormone resistance, such as hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. All these disorders are caused by impairments in the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway and, in particular, in the PTH/PTHrP signaling pathway: The main subtypes of PHP and related disorders are caused by de novo or autosomal dominantly inherited inactivating genetic mutations, and/or epigenetic, sporadic, or genetic-based alterations within or upstream of GNAS, PRKAR1A, PDE4D, and PDE3A. Here we will review the impressive progress that has been made over the past 30 years on the pathophysiology of these diseases and will describe the recently proposed novel nomenclature and classification. The new term "inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorder," iPPSD: (1) defines the common mechanism responsible for all diseases, (2) does not require a confirmed genetic defect, (3) avoids ambiguous terms like "pseudo," and (4) eliminates the clinical or molecular overlap between diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism