Incidence and risk factors associated with pressure ulcers among patients with HIV infection.

Emanuele Nicastri, Pierluigi Viale, Courtney H. Lyder, Francesco Cristini, Lorena Martini, Gianni Preziosi, Ferdinando Dodi, Laura Irato, Angelo Pan, Nicola Petrosillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for pressure ulcers among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. DESIGN: Multicenter trial that included 1258 consecutive patients infected with HIV-1 who had 1815 admissions to 16 acute care infectious disease units in Italy. METHODS: Data were collected for demographic, clinical, immunologic, and virologic parameters. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the Student t test was used for continuous variables. Univariate analysis was performed to examine possible risk factors for pressure ulcers by computing odds ratios; a multiple logistic regression model was used to obtain adjusted estimates of odds ratios while accounting for all possible risk factors. RESULTS: The incidence of pressure ulcers was 2.31 per 100 admissions, 3.33 per 100 patients, and 1.06 per 1000 patient days. All stages of pressure ulcers were represented in the sample: 7 Stage I (15.9%), 24 Stage II (54.5%), 8 Stage III (18.2%), and 5 Stage IV (11.4%). Multivariate analyses showed that being female, length of hospitalization, and clinical markers of HIV infection were independently associated with pressure ulcers. Mortality rates were 50% among patients with pressure ulcers and 7.2% among patients without pressure ulcers (P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalAdvances in skin & wound care
Issue number5 Pt 1
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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