Incidence, timing, and determinants of bacterial pneumonia among HIV-infected patients: Data from the ICONA foundation cohort

Cristina Mussini, Laura Galli, Alessandro C. Lepri, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Antinori, Raffaella Libertone, Gioacchino Angarano, Paolo Bonfanti, Antonella Castagna, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate incidence and determinants of bacterial pneumonia (BP) after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients. Methods: Patients free from BP at cART initiation enrolled between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated to estimate the time to the first episode of BP; uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, with time-updated covariates, were applied to identify the risk factors of the first episode of BP. Results: Four thousand nine hundred forty-two patients were followed for a median of 63.7 months (interquartile range: 23.6, 106.7); 73% were men, median age 36 years (interquartile range: 32, 42), 35% hepatitis C virus antibody positive, 28% smokers, 15% with an AIDS diagnosis (not BP) before cART, 46% with nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells per microliter. During 27,569 person years, 137 patients developed 156 BPs, for a crude incidence of 5.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.81 to 6.62] per 1000 person years. The probabilities of first BP at 3, 5, 10, and 14 years from cART initiation were 2.0% ± 0.22%, 2.9% ± 0.28%, 4.3% ± 0.42%, and 5.7% ± 0.75%, respectively. The occurrence of a first BP was associated with low nadir CD4+ [hazard ratios (HR) (per 100 cells/μL higher) = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94], low current CD4+ [HR (per 100 cells/mL higher) = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.92], high CD8+ [HR (per 100 cells/mL higher) = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.03], low hemoglobin [HR (per g/dL higher) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.78], and unfavorable virological outcome [HR (HIV-RNA >50 vs

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-345
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume63
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2013

Keywords

  • Antiretroviral-naive patients
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Incidence
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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