Background: The relation between pulmonary mycobacteriosis and lung cancer has been scrutinized for many years but the current evidence is inconsistent as some studies found an association between the two, whereas others have reported an insignificant relation. Materials and methods: 3224 consecutive patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of a comprehensive cancer center over a four-year period were considered. Patients diagnosed with pulmonary mycobacteriosis with microbiological confirmation on their surgical specimen were further analyzed. Results: 30 patients were diagnosed with pulmonary mycobacteriosis: six of them had a history of cancer. 18 patients received wedge resection, four patients received anatomic segmentectomy, two were submitted to lobectomy, one underwent pneumonectomy and five patients received other types of lesser procedures. Pulmonary mycobacteriosis and synchronous lung cancer were observed in four patients. Conclusions: Although rare, the incidental diagnoses of pulmonary mycobacteriosis among patients scheduled for lung cancer resection is not negligible. Pulmonologists, anesthesiologists and thoracic surgeons should be aware of this possibility before planning pulmonary resections of histologically undiagnosed lung nodules.
- Infectious disease
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