Incidentally detected non-palpable testicular tumours in adults at scrotal ultrasound: impact of radiological findings on management Radiologic review and recommendations of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee

Laurence Rocher, Parvati Ramchandani, Jane Belfield, Michele Bertolotto, Lorenzo E. Derchi, Jean Michel Correas, Raymond Oyen, Athina C. Tsili, Ahmet Tuncay Turgut, Vikram Dogra, Karim Fizazi, Simon Freeman, Jonathan Richenberg

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Abstract

Objectives: The increasing detection of small testicular lesions by ultrasound (US) in adults can lead to unnecessary orchiectomies. This article describes their nature, reviews the available literature on this subject and illustrates some classical lesions. We also suggest recommendations to help characterization and management. Methods: The ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee searched for original and review articles published before May 2015 using the Pubmed and Medline databases. Key words used were ‘testicular ultrasound’, ‘contrast-enhanced sonography’, ‘sonoelastography’, ‘magnetic resonance imaging’, ‘testis-sparing surgery’, ‘testis imaging’, ‘Leydig cell tumour’, ‘testicular cyst’. Consensus was obtained amongst the members of the subcommittee, urologist and medical oncologist. Results: Simple cysts are frequent and benign, and do not require follow up or surgery. Incidentally discovered small solid testicular lesions detected are benign in up to 80 %, with Leydig cell tumours being the most frequent. However, the presence of microliths, macrocalcifications and hypoechoic areas surrounding the nodule are findings suggestive of malignant disease. Conclusion: Asymptomatic small testicular lesions found on ultrasound are mainly benign, but findings such as microliths or hypoechoic regions surrounding the nodules may indicate malignancy. Colour Doppler US remains the basic examination for characterization. The role of newer imaging modalities in characterization is evolving. Key points: • Characterization of testicular lesions is primarily based on US examination. • The role of MRI, sonoelastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound is evolving. • Most small non-palpable testicular lesions seen on ultrasound are benign simple cysts. • Leydig cell tumours are the most frequent benign lesions. • Associated findings like microliths or hypoechoic regions may indicate malignancy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Radiology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Oct 24 2015

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Keywords

  • Colour Doppler ultrasound
  • Contrast-enhanced sonography
  • Magnetic resonance Imaging
  • Sonoelastography
  • Testicular tumours

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Rocher, L., Ramchandani, P., Belfield, J., Bertolotto, M., Derchi, L. E., Correas, J. M., Oyen, R., Tsili, A. C., Turgut, A. T., Dogra, V., Fizazi, K., Freeman, S., & Richenberg, J. (Accepted/In press). Incidentally detected non-palpable testicular tumours in adults at scrotal ultrasound: impact of radiological findings on management Radiologic review and recommendations of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee. European Radiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-4059-7