Increased expression of TREM2 in peripheral cells from mild cognitive impairment patients who progress into Alzheimer's disease

M. Casati, E. Ferri, C. Gussago, P. Mazzola, C. Abbate, G. Bellelli, D. Mari, M. Cesari, B. Arosio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and purpose: Neuroinflammation plays a role in the aetiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), a cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, seems to have protective anti-inflammatory activity in AD. Methods: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 expression was analysed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects (CT) and from patients with either AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients were re-evaluated at a 2-year follow-up to investigate their progression to AD (MCI-AD) or lack thereof (MCI-MCI). Results: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene expression was higher in AD than CT patients, but was highest in MCI. At recruitment TREM2 levels were higher in MCI-AD than in MCI-MCI, and in MCI-AD were higher initially than at follow-up. TREM2 displayed a moderate degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying MCI-AD in all MCI patients. Our data showed higher TREM2 levels in allele ε4 of apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4) carriers than non-carriers in MCI and particularly in MCI-AD. Conclusions: These data seem to confirm the protective role of TREM2 in the pre-clinical stage of AD. Upregulation of TREM2 in MCI-AD could be a mechanism to counteract the activation of neuroinflammatory processes. It is possible that TREM2 and ApoE ε4 interact synergistically in the pre-clinical stage of AD. Therefore, TREM2 may be useful as an early peripheral biomarker for the development of AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-810
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Peripheral biomarker
  • TREM2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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