Purpose: To determine how concomitant medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries affect outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: Patients aged > 15 years who were registered in the Swedish National Knee Ligament Registry for primary ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Patients with a concomitant MCL or LCL injury were stratified according to collateral ligament treatment (non-surgical, repair or reconstruction), and one isolated ACL reconstruction group was created. The outcomes were ACL revision and the 2-year Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), which were analyzed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and an analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: A total of 19,457 patients (mean age 27.9 years, 59.4% males) met the inclusion criteria. An isolated ACL reconstruction implied a lower risk of ACL revision compared with presence of a non-surgically treated MCL injury (HR = 0.61 [95% CI 0.41–0.89], p = 0.0097) but not compared with MCL repair or reconstruction. A concomitant LCL injury did not impact the risk of ACL revision. Patients with a concomitant MCL or LCL injury reported inferior 2-year KOOS compared with isolated ACL reconstruction. The largest difference was found in the sports and recreation subscale across all groups, with MCL reconstruction resulting in the maximum difference (14.1 points [95% CI 4.3–23.9], p = 0.005). Conclusion: Non-surgical treatment of a concomitant MCL injury in the setting of an ACL reconstruction may increase the risk of ACL revision. However, surgical treatment of the MCL injury was associated with a worse two-year patient-reported knee function. A concomitant LCL injury does not impact the risk of ACL revision compared with an isolated ACL reconstruction. Level of evidence: Cohort study, Level III.
- Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
- Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
- Medial collateral ligament (MCL)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine