Increased urinary excretion of thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-TxB2 in cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity

A. Benigni, C. Chiabrando, A. Piccinelli, N. Perico, M. Gavinelli, L. Furci, O. Patino, M. Abbate, T. Bertani, G. Remuzzi

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Cyclosporin A (CsA) administration to rats is associated with a selective increase in urinary excretion of immunoreactive thromboxane B2 (i-TxB2), the stable breakdown product of TxA2. The exaggerated synthesis of TxA2 may play a role in the reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed both in animals and humans undergoing CsA treatment. The present study was designed to get further insight into the origin of the abnormal i-TxB2 urinary excretion. Rats given orally CsA (50 mg/kg/day) for 30 days had a significant increase in the urinary excretion of both 2,3-dinor-TxB2 and TxB2 measured by technique of capillary column gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HRGC-NICIMS). Urinary TxB2 is more likely to reflect the renal synthesis of the parent compound, whereas 2,3-dinor-TxB2 is considered to reflect the amount of TxB2 formed in the circulation. Experiments in isolated perfused kidney (IPK) taken from animals given CsA for 30 days showed a lower percentage increase in urinary TxB2 over vehicle treated animals. Moreover in IPK the ratio 2,3-dinor-TxB2/TxB2 was lower than in vivo. The amount of i-TxB2 detectable in serum of animals given CsA was not different from that of control animals. In contrast, isolated glomeruli taken from rats given CsA had an increase in their TxA2 synthesis measured as i-TxB2 in the supernatants. Ultrastructural studies on kidney specimens from animals given CsA showed a focal glomerular endothelial damage together with a marked infiltration of blood borne cells of monocyte-macrophage type in the glomerular tuft. In contrast, kidney specimens taken from IPK preparations were devoid of inflammatory cells. In vitro CsA did not interfere with platelet arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism as shown by a normal i-TxB2 generation in vitro by rat platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exposed to CsA and then challenged with AA or ADP. Similarly isolated glomeruli and isolated proximal tubules from normal rats when challenged with CsA in vitro converted AA into TxA2 normally. It is suggested that the cause of the increased urinary excretion of 2,3-dinor-TxB2 is the consequence of intrarenal platelet and macrophage activation, probably triggered by the endothelial damage. The parallel increase in the urinary excretion of unmetabolized TxB2 is likely to reflect a concomitant activation of resident renal cell AA metabolism induced by CsA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-174
Number of pages11
JournalKidney International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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