Increased urinary indoxyl sulfate (indican): New insights into gut dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease

Erica Cassani, Michela Barichella, Raffaella Cancello, Ferruccio Cavanna, Laura Iorio, Emanuele Cereda, Carlotta Bolliri, Paola Zampella Maria, Francesca Bianchi, Benvenuto Cestaro, Gianni Pezzoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Changes in the composition of gut microflora have been associated with an increase in chronic diseases. Indican urinary concentration is one of the most common and easily assessable markers of intestinal dysbiosis. Little information is available on intestinal dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). We decided to investigate indican urinary concentrations in a cohort of PD patients. Methods: A case-control study including PD patients (N=68) on treatment with levodopa (PD) or on no pharmacological treatment (De Novo, DPD; N = 34) and an age and gender-matched healthy control group (CTR; N = 50). Main confounders, such as nutritional habits and constipation diagnosed according to Rome III criteria, were also investigated. Results: Indican urinary concentrations were significantly higher in PD and DPD than in CTR (P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-393
Number of pages5
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2015


  • Constipation
  • Gut dysbiosis
  • Parkinson disease
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)
  • Urinary indoxyl sulfate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Medicine(all)


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