Increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use

Pietro Apostoli, Michela Crippa, Maria Enrica Fracasso, Danilo Cottica, Lorenzo Alessio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the length of time a cutting fluid was used, its content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its mutagenic potential. The PAH concentrations were determined by means of a high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in samples of new cutting fluid and in samples used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The following PAHs were measured: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene + triphenylene, benzo [e] pyrene, benzo [a]-pyrene and perylene. Mutagenicitiy assays were carried out on the aforementioned samples using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used as an indicator to show up mutagens capable of inducing frame-shift genetic changes, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA was used as an indicator to detect mutagens capable of inducing base pair genetic changes. The mutagenic tests were carried out with and without microsomial activation, using 1:1, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 50 dilutions of cutting fluid samples. An increase in the concentrations of total PAHs over time was observed in the samples of cutting fluid used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The highest percentage increase in PAH concentrations was observed in the 6-month-old sample (10 times the initial concentration, from 45 to 411.8 μg of oil). None of the samples were mutagenic to S. typhimurium without metabolic activation or to E. coli with and without metabolic activation. All samples except for the 1:1 diluted sample showed moderate but significant mutagenic activity in the S. typhimurium test with metabolic activation. Mutagenicity rose to its highest levels (similar to those observed with the mutagenic compound 2-acetylaminofluorene, which was used as a positive control) in the 9-month-old sample and in the 6-month-old 1:20 and 1:50 diluted sample. This study shows an increase in the PAH concentrations and mutagenicity of cutting fluids following prolonged use. In order to minimize the risk caused by such an increase in PAH content, it is recommended that the cutting fluid be changed at least every 6 months.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-477
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Volume64
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1993

Fingerprint

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Salmonella typhimurium
Mutagens
Perylene
Escherichia coli
2-Acetylaminofluorene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Base Pairing
Oils
Gases
Metabolic Activation

Keywords

  • Ames test
  • Cutting fluids
  • Mutagenicity
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use. / Apostoli, Pietro; Crippa, Michela; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Cottica, Danilo; Alessio, Lorenzo.

In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 64, No. 7, 04.1993, p. 473-477.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Apostoli, Pietro ; Crippa, Michela ; Fracasso, Maria Enrica ; Cottica, Danilo ; Alessio, Lorenzo. / Increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use. In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 1993 ; Vol. 64, No. 7. pp. 473-477.
@article{19b2e2c6ef6d4f92bacccb0dfad2e0e2,
title = "Increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the length of time a cutting fluid was used, its content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its mutagenic potential. The PAH concentrations were determined by means of a high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in samples of new cutting fluid and in samples used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The following PAHs were measured: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene + triphenylene, benzo [e] pyrene, benzo [a]-pyrene and perylene. Mutagenicitiy assays were carried out on the aforementioned samples using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used as an indicator to show up mutagens capable of inducing frame-shift genetic changes, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA was used as an indicator to detect mutagens capable of inducing base pair genetic changes. The mutagenic tests were carried out with and without microsomial activation, using 1:1, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 50 dilutions of cutting fluid samples. An increase in the concentrations of total PAHs over time was observed in the samples of cutting fluid used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The highest percentage increase in PAH concentrations was observed in the 6-month-old sample (10 times the initial concentration, from 45 to 411.8 μg of oil). None of the samples were mutagenic to S. typhimurium without metabolic activation or to E. coli with and without metabolic activation. All samples except for the 1:1 diluted sample showed moderate but significant mutagenic activity in the S. typhimurium test with metabolic activation. Mutagenicity rose to its highest levels (similar to those observed with the mutagenic compound 2-acetylaminofluorene, which was used as a positive control) in the 9-month-old sample and in the 6-month-old 1:20 and 1:50 diluted sample. This study shows an increase in the PAH concentrations and mutagenicity of cutting fluids following prolonged use. In order to minimize the risk caused by such an increase in PAH content, it is recommended that the cutting fluid be changed at least every 6 months.",
keywords = "Ames test, Cutting fluids, Mutagenicity, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons",
author = "Pietro Apostoli and Michela Crippa and Fracasso, {Maria Enrica} and Danilo Cottica and Lorenzo Alessio",
year = "1993",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1007/BF00381094",
language = "English",
volume = "64",
pages = "473--477",
journal = "International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health",
issn = "0340-0131",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and mutagenicity in a cutting fluid as a consequence of its use

AU - Apostoli, Pietro

AU - Crippa, Michela

AU - Fracasso, Maria Enrica

AU - Cottica, Danilo

AU - Alessio, Lorenzo

PY - 1993/4

Y1 - 1993/4

N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the length of time a cutting fluid was used, its content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its mutagenic potential. The PAH concentrations were determined by means of a high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in samples of new cutting fluid and in samples used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The following PAHs were measured: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene + triphenylene, benzo [e] pyrene, benzo [a]-pyrene and perylene. Mutagenicitiy assays were carried out on the aforementioned samples using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used as an indicator to show up mutagens capable of inducing frame-shift genetic changes, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA was used as an indicator to detect mutagens capable of inducing base pair genetic changes. The mutagenic tests were carried out with and without microsomial activation, using 1:1, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 50 dilutions of cutting fluid samples. An increase in the concentrations of total PAHs over time was observed in the samples of cutting fluid used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The highest percentage increase in PAH concentrations was observed in the 6-month-old sample (10 times the initial concentration, from 45 to 411.8 μg of oil). None of the samples were mutagenic to S. typhimurium without metabolic activation or to E. coli with and without metabolic activation. All samples except for the 1:1 diluted sample showed moderate but significant mutagenic activity in the S. typhimurium test with metabolic activation. Mutagenicity rose to its highest levels (similar to those observed with the mutagenic compound 2-acetylaminofluorene, which was used as a positive control) in the 9-month-old sample and in the 6-month-old 1:20 and 1:50 diluted sample. This study shows an increase in the PAH concentrations and mutagenicity of cutting fluids following prolonged use. In order to minimize the risk caused by such an increase in PAH content, it is recommended that the cutting fluid be changed at least every 6 months.

AB - The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the length of time a cutting fluid was used, its content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its mutagenic potential. The PAH concentrations were determined by means of a high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in samples of new cutting fluid and in samples used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The following PAHs were measured: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene + triphenylene, benzo [e] pyrene, benzo [a]-pyrene and perylene. Mutagenicitiy assays were carried out on the aforementioned samples using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used as an indicator to show up mutagens capable of inducing frame-shift genetic changes, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA was used as an indicator to detect mutagens capable of inducing base pair genetic changes. The mutagenic tests were carried out with and without microsomial activation, using 1:1, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 50 dilutions of cutting fluid samples. An increase in the concentrations of total PAHs over time was observed in the samples of cutting fluid used for 3, 6 and 9 months. The highest percentage increase in PAH concentrations was observed in the 6-month-old sample (10 times the initial concentration, from 45 to 411.8 μg of oil). None of the samples were mutagenic to S. typhimurium without metabolic activation or to E. coli with and without metabolic activation. All samples except for the 1:1 diluted sample showed moderate but significant mutagenic activity in the S. typhimurium test with metabolic activation. Mutagenicity rose to its highest levels (similar to those observed with the mutagenic compound 2-acetylaminofluorene, which was used as a positive control) in the 9-month-old sample and in the 6-month-old 1:20 and 1:50 diluted sample. This study shows an increase in the PAH concentrations and mutagenicity of cutting fluids following prolonged use. In order to minimize the risk caused by such an increase in PAH content, it is recommended that the cutting fluid be changed at least every 6 months.

KW - Ames test

KW - Cutting fluids

KW - Mutagenicity

KW - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027308862&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027308862&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00381094

DO - 10.1007/BF00381094

M3 - Article

C2 - 8482586

AN - SCOPUS:0027308862

VL - 64

SP - 473

EP - 477

JO - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

JF - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

SN - 0340-0131

IS - 7

ER -