Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexual men and women, as monitored by analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease sequences

Claudia Balotta, Guido Facchi, Michela Violin, Sonia Van Dooren, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Federica Forbici, Ada Bertoli, Chiara Riva, Daniela Senese, Pietro Caramello, Giuseppe Carnevale, Giuliano Rizzardini, Laura Cremonini, Laura Monno, Giovanni Rezza, Carlo Federico Perno, Giuseppe Ippolito, Antonella D'Arminio-Monforte, Anne Mieke Vandamme, Mauro Moroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of HIV-1 non-clade B over time in a formerly clade B-restricted area. Protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene were used for phylogenetic and recombination analysis and for clade assignment to HIV-1 A-D, F-H, J, and K strains of the M group. Methods: The pol gene of 349 HIV-1 patients belonging to the Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) were genotypically analyzed to study the prevalence of antiretroviral-associated resistance mutations. All HIV-1 pol sequences and 32 HIV reference strains were analyzed, including the reference strains for the major HIV-1 subtypes. The non-clade B sequences according to the HIV-1 Subtyping Tool program were further studied by a bootscan analysis (SimPlot) to investigate the likelihood of recombination between subtypes. Results: Phylogenetic analysis detected 19 of 349 (5.4%) non-clade B subtypes. The proportions of patients carrying non-clade B virus before and after 1997 were 1.9% and 8.4%, respectively (p = .008). Among whites, heterosexual infection and female gender were significantly associated with the presence of non-clade B subtypes (p = .001 and .005, respectively). Non-clade B HIV-1 was harbored by 14.5% of the heterosexuals who were found to be HIV-1 positive after 1997, 60% of whom were women. Bootscan analysis identified four strains as F, two as A, one as C, one as G, and 11 (57.9 %) as non-clade B recombinant subtypes. Conclusion: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in a previously clade B-homogeneous area indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic is evolving in Italy and that heterosexuals and women are at increased risk of infection with nonclade B HIV-1 subtypes. Sequences inferred from the pol gene yield to establish the subtype of circulating HIV-1 strains. As a consequence, genotyping of pol gene for testing resistance to antiretrovirals warrants concomitant surveillance of non-clade B subtypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-505
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume27
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2001

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RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
Heterosexuality
HIV-1
Peptide Hydrolases
pol Genes
Genetic Recombination
Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1
Infection
Italy
Cross-Sectional Studies
HIV

Keywords

  • Circulating HIV-1 recombinant forms
  • HIV-1 pol sequences
  • HIV-1 subtypes
  • Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology

Cite this

Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexual men and women, as monitored by analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease sequences. / Balotta, Claudia; Facchi, Guido; Violin, Michela; Van Dooren, Sonia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Forbici, Federica; Bertoli, Ada; Riva, Chiara; Senese, Daniela; Caramello, Pietro; Carnevale, Giuseppe; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Cremonini, Laura; Monno, Laura; Rezza, Giovanni; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ippolito, Giuseppe; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Moroni, Mauro.

In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 27, No. 5, 15.08.2001, p. 499-505.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Balotta, C, Facchi, G, Violin, M, Van Dooren, S, Cozzi-Lepri, A, Forbici, F, Bertoli, A, Riva, C, Senese, D, Caramello, P, Carnevale, G, Rizzardini, G, Cremonini, L, Monno, L, Rezza, G, Perno, CF, Ippolito, G, D'Arminio-Monforte, A, Vandamme, AM & Moroni, M 2001, 'Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexual men and women, as monitored by analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease sequences', Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 499-505.
Balotta, Claudia ; Facchi, Guido ; Violin, Michela ; Van Dooren, Sonia ; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro ; Forbici, Federica ; Bertoli, Ada ; Riva, Chiara ; Senese, Daniela ; Caramello, Pietro ; Carnevale, Giuseppe ; Rizzardini, Giuliano ; Cremonini, Laura ; Monno, Laura ; Rezza, Giovanni ; Perno, Carlo Federico ; Ippolito, Giuseppe ; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella ; Vandamme, Anne Mieke ; Moroni, Mauro. / Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexual men and women, as monitored by analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease sequences. In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2001 ; Vol. 27, No. 5. pp. 499-505.
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T1 - Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexual men and women, as monitored by analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease sequences

AU - Balotta, Claudia

AU - Facchi, Guido

AU - Violin, Michela

AU - Van Dooren, Sonia

AU - Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

AU - Forbici, Federica

AU - Bertoli, Ada

AU - Riva, Chiara

AU - Senese, Daniela

AU - Caramello, Pietro

AU - Carnevale, Giuseppe

AU - Rizzardini, Giuliano

AU - Cremonini, Laura

AU - Monno, Laura

AU - Rezza, Giovanni

AU - Perno, Carlo Federico

AU - Ippolito, Giuseppe

AU - D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella

AU - Vandamme, Anne Mieke

AU - Moroni, Mauro

PY - 2001/8/15

Y1 - 2001/8/15

N2 - Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of HIV-1 non-clade B over time in a formerly clade B-restricted area. Protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene were used for phylogenetic and recombination analysis and for clade assignment to HIV-1 A-D, F-H, J, and K strains of the M group. Methods: The pol gene of 349 HIV-1 patients belonging to the Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) were genotypically analyzed to study the prevalence of antiretroviral-associated resistance mutations. All HIV-1 pol sequences and 32 HIV reference strains were analyzed, including the reference strains for the major HIV-1 subtypes. The non-clade B sequences according to the HIV-1 Subtyping Tool program were further studied by a bootscan analysis (SimPlot) to investigate the likelihood of recombination between subtypes. Results: Phylogenetic analysis detected 19 of 349 (5.4%) non-clade B subtypes. The proportions of patients carrying non-clade B virus before and after 1997 were 1.9% and 8.4%, respectively (p = .008). Among whites, heterosexual infection and female gender were significantly associated with the presence of non-clade B subtypes (p = .001 and .005, respectively). Non-clade B HIV-1 was harbored by 14.5% of the heterosexuals who were found to be HIV-1 positive after 1997, 60% of whom were women. Bootscan analysis identified four strains as F, two as A, one as C, one as G, and 11 (57.9 %) as non-clade B recombinant subtypes. Conclusion: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in a previously clade B-homogeneous area indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic is evolving in Italy and that heterosexuals and women are at increased risk of infection with nonclade B HIV-1 subtypes. Sequences inferred from the pol gene yield to establish the subtype of circulating HIV-1 strains. As a consequence, genotyping of pol gene for testing resistance to antiretrovirals warrants concomitant surveillance of non-clade B subtypes.

AB - Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of HIV-1 non-clade B over time in a formerly clade B-restricted area. Protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene were used for phylogenetic and recombination analysis and for clade assignment to HIV-1 A-D, F-H, J, and K strains of the M group. Methods: The pol gene of 349 HIV-1 patients belonging to the Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) were genotypically analyzed to study the prevalence of antiretroviral-associated resistance mutations. All HIV-1 pol sequences and 32 HIV reference strains were analyzed, including the reference strains for the major HIV-1 subtypes. The non-clade B sequences according to the HIV-1 Subtyping Tool program were further studied by a bootscan analysis (SimPlot) to investigate the likelihood of recombination between subtypes. Results: Phylogenetic analysis detected 19 of 349 (5.4%) non-clade B subtypes. The proportions of patients carrying non-clade B virus before and after 1997 were 1.9% and 8.4%, respectively (p = .008). Among whites, heterosexual infection and female gender were significantly associated with the presence of non-clade B subtypes (p = .001 and .005, respectively). Non-clade B HIV-1 was harbored by 14.5% of the heterosexuals who were found to be HIV-1 positive after 1997, 60% of whom were women. Bootscan analysis identified four strains as F, two as A, one as C, one as G, and 11 (57.9 %) as non-clade B recombinant subtypes. Conclusion: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in a previously clade B-homogeneous area indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic is evolving in Italy and that heterosexuals and women are at increased risk of infection with nonclade B HIV-1 subtypes. Sequences inferred from the pol gene yield to establish the subtype of circulating HIV-1 strains. As a consequence, genotyping of pol gene for testing resistance to antiretrovirals warrants concomitant surveillance of non-clade B subtypes.

KW - Circulating HIV-1 recombinant forms

KW - HIV-1 pol sequences

KW - HIV-1 subtypes

KW - Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals

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