Independent correlates of urinary albumin excretion within the normoalbuminuric range in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study

Giuseppe Penno, Anna Solini, Giacomo Zoppini, Cecilia Fondelli, Roberto Trevisan, Monica Vedovato, Franco Cavalot, Gabriella Gruden, Olga Lamacchia, Luigi Laviola, Emanuela Orsi, Giuseppe Pugliese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Aims: Within the normoalbuminuric range, low albuminuria (LA, 10–29 mg/24 h) is associated with higher adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes than normal albuminuria (NA, 1c, triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP), use of anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hypertensive drugs, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, retinopathy, chronic kidney disease, any cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and coronary and peripheral events. Men with LA were also more frequently current or former smokers and had higher body mass index, waist circumference, and non-HDL cholesterol. Independent correlates of LA were age (OR 1.018), family history of hypertension (OR 1.321), smoking status (former, OR 1.158; current, OR 1.237), HbA1c (OR 1.062), waist circumference (OR 1.050), triglycerides (OR 1.001), and diastolic BP (OR 1.014), together with use of anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hypertensive agents. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased albuminuria within the normoalbuminuric range. As most of these factors are potentially modifiable, treating them aggressively might reduce the excess risk associated with LA. Trial registration: NCT00715481;

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-981
Number of pages11
JournalActa Diabetologica
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 22 2015



  • Albumin excretion rate
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • eGFR
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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