BACKGROUND: To review the available clinical data about the value of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence imaging for intraoperative detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, according to the PRISMA guidelines, for clinical series investigating the possible role of ICG fluorescence imaging in detecting peritoneal carcinomatosis during surgical treatment of abdominal malignancies. With the aim to analyze actual application in the daily clinical practice, papers including trials with fluorophores other than ICG, in vitro and animals series were excluded. Data on patients and cancer features, timing, dose and modality of ICG administration, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fluorescence diagnosis of peritoneal nodules were extracted and analyzed.
RESULTS: Out of 192 screened papers, we finally retrieved 7 series reporting ICG-guided detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Two papers reported the same cases, thus only 6 series were analyzed, for a total of 71 patients and 353 peritoneal nodules. The investigated tumors were colorectal carcinomas in 28 cases, hepatocellular carcinoma in 16 cases, ovarian cancer in 26 cases and endometrial cancer in 1 case. In all but 4 cases, the clinical setting was an elective intervention in patients known as having peritoneal carcinomatosis. No series reported a laparoscopic procedure. Technical data of ICG management were consistent across the studies. Overall, 353 lesions were harvested and singularly evaluated. Sensitivity varied from 72.4 to 100%, specificity from 54.2 to 100%. Two series reported that planned intervention changed in 25 and 29% of patients, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Indocyanine Green based fluorescence of peritoneal carcinomatosis is a promising intraoperative tool for detection and characterization of peritoneal nodules in patients with colorectal, hepatocellular, ovarian carcinomas. Further prospective studies are needed to fix its actual diagnostic value on these and other abdominal malignancies with frequent spread to peritoneum.
- Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology
- Indocyanine Green
- Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
- Prospective Studies