Different types of acute myeloid leukemia blast cells were induced to differentiate in vitro with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and vitamin D3 (VD). M0/M1 leukemic cells are not sensitive to differentiating agents, whereas M3 leukemic cells are induced to undergo granulocytic differentiation after ATRA treatment but are not sensitive to VD. M2 leukemic blast cells behave differently because they undergo monocytic differentiation with both the differentiation inducers. To gain some insight into the maturation of M2- type leukemic cells, we studied the molecular mechanisms underlying monocytic differentiation induced by ATRA and VD in spontaneous M2 blast cells as well as in Kasumi-1 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia M2-type cell line). Our results indicate that ATRA as well as VD efficiently increases the nuclear abundance of VD receptor (VDR) and promotes monocytic differentiation. VDR is functionally active in ATRA-treated Kasumi-1 cells because it efficiently heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor, binds to a DR3-type vitamin D- responsive element, and activates the transcription of a vitamin D-responsive element-regulated reporter gene. Consistent with these findings, VD- responsive genes are induced by ATRA treatment of Kasumi-1 cells, suggesting that the genetic program underlying monocytic differentiation is activated. The molecular mechanism by which ATRA increases the nuclear abundance of a functional VDR is still unknown, but our data clearly indicate that the M2 leukemic cell context is only permissive of monocytic differentiation.
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 1 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research