Induction of apoptosis in prostate tumor PC-3 cells and inhibition of xenograft prostate tumor growth by the vanilloid capsaicin

A. M. Sánchez, M. G. Sánchez, S. Malagarie-Cazenave, N. Olea, I. Díaz-Laviada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot chilli pepper, has been recently shown to induce apoptosis in several cell lines through a not well known mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of the vanilloid capsaicin in the death regulation of the human cancer androgen-resistant cell line PC-3. Capsaicin inhibited the growth of PC-3 with an IC 50 of 20 μM cells and induced cell apoptosis, as assessed by flow cytometry and nuclei staining with DAPI. Capsaicin induced apoptosis in prostate cells by a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species generation, dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (δΨ m) and activation of caspase 3. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis was not reduced by the antagonist capsazepine in a dose range from 0.1 μM to 20 μM, suggesting a receptor-independent mechanism. To study the in vivo effects of capsaicinoids, PC-3 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice. Subcutaneous injection of either capsaicin or capsazepine (5 mg/kg body weight) in nude mice suppressed PC-3 tumor growth in all tumors investigated and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Our data show a role for capsaicin against androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and suggest that capsaicin is a promising anti-tumor agent in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, which shows resistance to many chemotherapeutic agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-99
Number of pages11
JournalApoptosis
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2006

Keywords

  • Capsaicin
  • Capsazepine
  • PC-3 cells
  • Prostate cancer
  • Vanilloids
  • Xenograft tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Cell Biology

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