Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main event leading to the induction of the ER stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent postmortem evaluation, showing that the UPR pathway is activated in nigral dopaminergic neurons bearing α-synuclein inclusions in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, suggests that the activation of the UPR may be induced by the accumulation of α-synuclein. In this study, we show that the misfolded protein-sensor/UPR activator glucose-regulated protein 78/immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein was bound to α-synuclein and was increased in 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' models showing aggregated α-synuclein accumulation. Moreover, α-synuclein accumulation induced the expression of the UPR-related activating transcription factor 4/cAMP-responsive element-2. These findings indicate that activation of the UPR pathway in the PD brain is associated with α-synuclein accumulation occurring in part within the ER.
- cytochrome c
- Parkinson's disease
- unfolded protein response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience