Infantile inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors: clinicopathological and molecular characterization of 12 cases. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Oscar Lopez-Nunez, Ivy John, Ryane N. Panasiti, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Luisa Santoro, Diane Grélaud, Tao Wu, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Michela Casanova, Rita Alaggio, Lea F. Surrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors arising in infants are rare, poorly investigated and mostly reported as isolated cases or as a part of larger series thus, their clinicopathological and molecular features are essentially unknown. Archival files from two large pediatric institutions and a tumor registry were queried for pediatric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Available material from patients ≤12 months of age was reviewed. Additional immunostains (ALK-1, D240, WT1) and ALK-FISH studies were performed as needed. Targeted anchored multiplex PCR with next-generation sequencing was done in all cases. A total of 12 of 131 infantile cases (mean 5.5 months) were identified (M:F of 2:1). Anatomic locations included intestinal/mesenteric (n = 6), head/neck (n = 3), and viscera (n = 3). Half of tumors showed a hypocellular myxoid pattern, perivascular condensation, and prominent vasculature with vague glomeruloid structures present in four of them. The remaining cases exhibited a more cellular pattern with minimal myxoid component. ALK-1 immunohistochemistry was positive in most cases (11/12) with cytoplasmic-diffuse (n = 6), cytoplasmic-granular (n = 2), and dot-like (n = 3) staining patterns. ALK fusion partners identified in five cases included EML4, TPM4, RANBP2, and a novel KLC1. Three inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors showed fusions with other kinases including TFG-ROS1 and novel FN1-ROS1 and RBPMS-NTRK3 rearrangements. Favorable outcome was documented in most cases (10/11) with available follow-up (median 17 months) while three patients were successfully treated with crizotinib. In summary, infantile inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are rare and can exhibit paucicellular, extensively myxoid/vascular morphology with peculiar immunophenotype mimicking other mesenchymal or vascular lesions. All tumors harbored kinase fusions involving ALK, ROS1, and NTRK3 including three novel fusion partners (KLC1, FN1, and RBPMS, respectively). A favorable response to crizotinib seen in three cases supports its potential use in infants as seen in older patients. Awareness of these unusual morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features is critical for appropriate diagnosis and optimized targeted therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)576-590
Number of pages15
JournalModern Pathology
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Registries
  • Italy
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Phenotype
  • Gene Fusion
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis/*genetics
  • Crizotinib/therapeutic use
  • Myofibroblasts/drug effects/enzymology/*pathology
  • Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue/drug therapy/enzymology/*genetics/*pathology
  • Philadelphia
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms/drug therapy/enzymology/*genetics/*pathology

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