Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration: An update for the diagnosis

Alessandro Iodice, Carlotta Spagnoli, Grazia Gabriella Salerno, Daniele Frattini, Gianna Bertani, Patrizia Bergonzini, Francesco Pisani, Carlo Fusco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset of rapid motor and cognitive regression and hypotonia evolving into spasticity. Recessively inherited mutations of the PLA2G6 gene are causative of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and other PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration, which includes conditions known as atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy, Karak syndrome and early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism with cognitive impairment. Phenotypic spectrum continues to evolve and genotype-phenotype correlations are currently limited. Due to the overlapping phenotypes and heterogeneity of clinical findings characterization of the syndrome is not always achievable. We reviewed the most recent clinical and neuroradiological information in the way to make easier differential diagnosis with other degenerative disorders in the paediatric age. Recognizing subtle signs and symptoms is a fascinating challenge to drive towards better diagnostic and genetic investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-100
Number of pages8
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Atypical NAD
  • Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
  • PLA2G6
  • PLAN

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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