Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy: Clinical spectrum and diagnostic criteria

Nardo Nardocci, G. Zorzi, L. Farina, S. Binelli, W. Scaioli, C. Ciano, L. Verga, L. Angelini, M. Savoiardo, O. Bugiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To present clinical, neurophysiologic, and neuroradiologic findings in 13 patients with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), focusing on aspects that assist early diagnosis. Background: Clinicopathologic diagnostic criteria for INAD were delineated by Aicardi and Castelein in 1979, but atypical cases are reported frequently and little is known of the diagnostic utility of MRI. Methods: The authors reviewed the clinical, neurophysiologic, and MRI findings of 13 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for INAD. Results: Symptoms onset was between 6 months and 2 years of age. In nine patients the clinical course was typical, with rapid motor and mental deterioration; in four patients progression was slower and the clinical picture was different. Electromyographic (EMG) signs of chronic denervation, fast rhythms on EEG and abnormal visual evoked potentials were observed in all patients during the disease course. Cerebellar atrophy with signal hyperintensity in the cerebellar cortex on T2-weighted images were the most characteristic MRI findings; hypointensity in the pallida and substantia nigra was also observed in two patients. α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity on leukocytes was normal in the 10 patients tested. Conclusions: EMG and MRI abnormalities are the earliest and most suggestive signs of INAD, which has a clinical and radiologic spectrum that is broader than reported previously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1472-1478
Number of pages7
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 22 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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