The improvement in supportive care and the introduction of new therapeutic agents, including lenalidomide and hypomethylating agents, in myelodysplastic syndromes have improved patients' outcomes; however, at the same time, the frequency and epidemiology of infections have changed. Therefore, the great strides in the indications and use of new treatment strategies for myelodysplastic syndromes need a parallel progress in the best approach to prophylaxis and supportive therapy for infections. Based on the recognition that the above issues represent an unmet clinical need in myelodysplastic syndromes, an Italian expert panel performed a review of the literature and composed a framework of the best recommendations for optimal infection control in patient candidates to receive active treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes. In this consensus document we report the outcomes of that review and of the consensus meetings held during 2017. The issues tackled in the project dealt with: information to be collected from candidates for active treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes; how to monitor the risk of infection; antimicrobial prophylaxis; the role of iron chelation and antiviral/antibacterial vaccinations. For each of these issues, practice recommendations are provided.